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Required small amounts in the diet to perform specific biological functions for normal maintenance of optimum growth and health of the organism. Slide 3: CLASSIFICATION Slide 4: Vitamin Differences Slide 5: FUNCTIONS.. Vision Generates pigments for the retina Maintains surface lining of eyes Cell division and differentiation Healthy Skin Regulate Immune System Reproduction Bone growth Slide 6: Animal Sources Eggs Meat Cheese Milk Liver Kidney Cod Halibut fish oil Plant Sources Carrots Sweet Potatoes Cantaloupe Pink Grapefruit Apricots Broccoli Spinach Pumpkin Slide 7: Night blindness Decreased resistance to infections Extremely dry skin, hair or nails corneal ulceration(keratomalacia) RDI for man is 900 micrograms RDI for woman is 700 micrograms Tolerable maximum Intake Level is 3,000 micrograms Signs of Deficiency Slide 8: TOXICITY Hypervitaminosis A leads to toxic symptoms: Dry, itchy skin Headaches and fatigue Hair loss Liver damage Blurred vision Loss of appetite Skin coloration Slide 9: Other Side Effects Severe birth defects Women of child-bearing age should not consume more than 8000 IU per day Retin-A (acne cream) or Accutane can cause birth defects Skin can take on a yellow/orange glow Most cases of vitamin A overdose occur from supplements but can occur from diet Slide 10: VITAMIN Vitamin D is different from all other vitamins, in that human body can synthesize it with the help of sunlight. Vitamin D sources • Cholecalciferol is produced in the skin by U.V. radiation of 7- dehydreocholesterol (vitamin D precursor, that is synthesized by the liver) • Preformed vitamin D from fish-liver oil, flesh of oily fish , egg yolk, and liver (milk is poor source of vitamin D). Slide 11: Skin Cholesterol derivative Cholecalciferol blood Calcidiol (inactive) blood Calcitriol (Active hormone form of vitamin D) ABSORBTION AND FORMATION OF VITAMIN D Slide 12: FUNCTION: Bone formation and maintenance Assists in the absorption of dietary calcium. Helps to make calcium and phosphorus available in the blood. Stimulates maturation of cells – heart, brain, immune system, etc. Slide 13: Decreased Calcium absorption; causes bone deficiency Children = Ricket’s Disease Adults = Osteomalacia Loss of calcium from bone and deposition in soft tissues. eg kidney stones Prolonged exposure to sunlight degrades the vitamin D precursor in the skin, preventing its conversion to the active vitamin. Prolonged exposure to sunlight causes skin cancer. Loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, psychological depression. Deficiency: Slide 14: (Tocopherols) FOOD SOURCES Cotton seed oil, corn oil, peanut oil and wheat germ oil are good sources. • Green lettuce leaves have high content. • Other good sources: eggs, muscle meat, liver and fish. Slide 15: Protects cell membranes and other fat-soluble parts of the body (LDL cholesterol) from oxidation May reduce the risk of heart disease May also discourage development of some types of cancer Promotes normal growth and development Promotes normal red blood cell formation Acts as anti-blood clotting agent Also been known to aid the process of wound healing FUNCTIONS Slide 16: Vitmin E deficiency is very rare. Deficiencies occur due to decreased absorption of fats in liver disease, low fat diets Premature babies – fragile RBCs (hemolysis) Loss of muscle coordination, vision, immune functions Toxicities (more than 1000 milligrams/day) Increases the effects of anticoagulants (Coumadin, Warfarin) Vitamin E Deficiency.. Slide 17: It is required for the production of blood clotting factors, essential for coagulation Dietary Sources Cabbage,cauliflower, tomatoes ,Spinach and other green vegetables are good sources. It also present in egg yolk, meat, liver, cheese and dairy products. Slide 18: Deficiency symptoms The deficiency of vitamin K is uncommon, since it is present in the diet in sufficient quantity and is adequately synthesized by the intestinal bacteria. However , vitamin K deficiency may occur due to faulty absorption, diarrheal diseases and Administration of antibiotics The blood clotting time is increased. RDI for an adult is 70-140 μg/day. Slide 19: Hypervitaminosis K Administration of large doses of vitamin K produces hemolytic anaemia and jaundice, Slide 20: VITAMIN Ascorbic acid (Toxic to Viruses, bacteria, and some malignant tumor cells) Antioxidant water-soluble sources Guava, Broccoli, Cantaloupe, Red Bell Pepper, Orange Juice, Strawberries, Tomato Juice, Raw Tomato, Sweet Potato, Tangerine, Spinach, Leafy Greens, Berries, Citrus Fruits Slide 21: Men: 60mg/day Women: 60mg/day Children: 45mg/day Recommended Dietary Intake Slide 22: Protects body from free radicals helps in formation of connective tissue (collagen) aids in the healing of wounds helps to keep gums healthy aids the body in absorbing iron from plant sources helps body to fight infections aids in the prevention of heart disease FUNCTIONS Slide 23: Weight loss fatigue and joint pain scurvy (bruising easily, bleeding gums, and tendency for bones to fracture) reduced resistance to colds and infections slow healing of wounds and fractured bones Deficiency of vitamin C Slide 24: Diarrhea gastrointestinal discomfort rebound Scurvy Avoid chewable tablets (may cause Acid erosion of teeth) Harmful effects in larger doses:(over 1000mg/ dose) Slide 25: VITAMIN Slide 26: B-1 Thiamin Thiamine (anti- beri beri vitamin) is a water soluble. Dietary sources Legumes Nuts Pork Fish Liver Whole grain or enriched breads and cereals Recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for adults 1-1.5 mg/day For children 0.7-1.2 mg/day Slide 27: Producing energy from carbohydrates proper nerve function stabilizing the appetite promoting growth and good muscle tone ATP production Beri – beri is mostly seen in populations consuming exclusively polished rice as food Loss of appetite Weakness & Feeling tired Loss of weight Insomnia, Depression B-1 Deficiency Important in.. Slide 28: B-2 Riboflavin Important in: energy production. carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism formation of antibodies and red blood cells maintenance of good vision, skin, nails, and hair Slide 29: Recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for adult is 1.2-1.7 mg. Sources of B-2 Large amounts in dairy eggs meats Small amounts in leafy green vegetables enriched grains Slide 30: B-2 Deficiency Cracks and sores in mouth and lips cheilosis Glossitis. Itching and burning eyes Dermatitis Digestive disturbances Slide 31: NIACIN B-3 Niacin or nicotinic acid is also known as anti pellagra preventive factor Dietary sources.. Liver, yeast, whole grains, cereals, pulses like beans and peanuts. Milk, fish, egg and vegetables are moderate sources. Slide 32: Recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult is 15-20 mg and for children around 10-15 mg Important in: maintenance of skin and tongue improves circulation energy production maintenance of nervous system health of the gastro intestinal track Slide 33: Pellegra rare in Western societies, The symptoms of pellagra are commonly referred to as three Ds Inflammation of skin Dermatitis gastrointestinal disturbance Diarrhea headache, insomnia, mental depression Dementia nervousness, irritability fatigue, aches, and pains B-3 deficiency Slide 34: B-6 Pyridoxine Important in: Production of red blood cells conversion of tryptophan to niacin (B-3) immunity nervous system functions reducing muscle spasms, cramps, and numbness maintaining proper balance of sodium and phosphorous in the body Slide 35: Recommended dietary allowance (RDA) 1.3 mg/day to 1.7 mg/day mushrooms, broccoli, sprouts, cod, calf's liver, green beans, winter squash, tomatoes, Dietary sources Slide 36: B-6 Deficiency nervousness, insomnia loss of muscle control, muscle weakness arm and leg cramps water retention skin lesions High doses of B-6 may be recommended to treat, carpal tunnel syndrome, and sleep disorders, but continued use of high doses may result in permanent nerve damage. Slide 37: B-12 Cobalamin Important in: proper nerve function production of red blood cells metabolizing fats and proteins DNA reproduction Recommended dietary allowance (RDA)2-3 mcg/day Slide 38: Iron deficiency anemia nerve damage hypersensitive skin B-12 Deficiency Dietary sources naturally found in animal products, including fish, meat, poultry, eggs, milk, and milk products Vitamin B12 is generally not present in plant foods, but fortified breakfast cereals are a readily available Slide 39: Thank you Submitted by- Dr.S.M.SUGANESH B.D.S, M.S You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.