Perception

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Perception Sudhir Pani

"WE DONT SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE".:

"WE DONT SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE". Like this......

What do you see?:

What do you see?

What is Perception?:

What is Perception? Perception is “a very complex cognitive process that yields a unique picture of the world, a picture that may be quite different from reality” Perception is a process , by which an individual receives information about his/ her environment, selectively assimilates the stimuli in the environment, cognitively organizes the perceived information and then interprets the information People’s behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself

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Receiving Stimuli Using sensory organs Selecting Stimuli Filtering information Organizing Grouping into recognizable patterns Response Behavior of Individual Perceptual Process Interpreting Giving a meaning

Selection Process:

Selection Process External Nature : Auditory/ Visual - Words/ Pictures - Animals/ People Location : Front & Center Size : Larger Contrast : Stands out against background Repetition : Repeated stimulus attracts Movement : Moving against stationary Novelty & : New objects in familiar situations or Familiarity familiar objects in new situations Internal Learning (creates expectancy) Psychological Needs (deprived needs) Age (generation gap) Interests Ambivalence (mixed feelings) Paranoid perception (emotionally disturbed)

Organising Process:

Organising Process Principles: Ambiguous Figures Figure Ground

Organising Process:

Organising Process Perceptual Grouping: Similarity Proximity Closure Perceptual Constancy: Shape Size Colour

Organising Process:

Organising Process Illusions :

Interpreting Process:

Interpreting Process FACTOR CHARACTERISTIC Other Factors: Perceptual set, Stereotyping, Perceptual Context, Perceptual Defence Attribution Assign causes to behaviour (internal or external) Halo or Horns Effect Perceiving in terms of Good / Bad Implicit Personality Theory Certain traits are associated with one another Projection Own attributes assigned to others

Factors influencing Perception Process:

Factors influencing Perception Process Situational Factors Physical Setting Social Setting Organizational Setting Perceiver’s Characteristics Need Experiences Values Attitude Personality Characteristics of the Perceived Nature Size Appearance Location, etc Individual’s Perception

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Attribution Theory Behaviour can be examined on the basis of its distinctiveness, consistency, and consensus. Distinctiveness Does this person behave in this manner in other situations ? Yes Low Distinctiveness No High Distinctiveness Consistency Does this person behave in this same manner at other times ? Yes High Consistency No Low Consistency Consensus Do other persons behave in this same manner? No Low Consensus Yes High Consensus Internal Attribution External Attribution

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An Example The faculty tries to attribute a student’s poor performance in class test. If the student tends to do poorly in the class test in other subjects ( low distinctiveness ), has done poorly in earlier class tests ( high consistency ), and if no other or few students in the class did poorly in this class test ( low consensus ), the faculty tends to make an internal attribution . The poor performance is to be found within the student like, lack of motivation, poor study habits etc. However, if the student did well in class tests in other subjects ( high distinctiveness ), has performed well in earlier class tests ( low consistency ), and if other students have done poorly in this test ( high consensus ); the faculty might make an external attribution . The external factors could be faculty’s wrong evaluation, difficult questions etc. Fundamental attribution error : A tendency to attribute the behaviour of other people more to internal than to external factors. Self-serving bias: People tend to attribute their favourable outcomes to internal factors and their failures to external factors.

Importance of Perception in OB:

Importance of Perception in OB General Application Perceptual World vs. Real World - Need to recognize the difference Proper understanding leads to – Effectiveness towards Organisational Goals and Personal Growth Specific Applications Interview for Selection Unrealistic Expectations about the Organisation & Job Performance Appraisal by the Evaluator Commitment to Organisation Impression Management – Individual & Organisation Employee’s Effort

Specific Applications:

Specific Applications Theory X & Theory Y Assumptions of Managers Theory X : Employees inherently dislike work and avoid it. They must be coerced , controlled, or threatened to achieve desired goals. Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction . They give importance to security and display little ambition. Theory Y : Employees view work as natural as play . People exercise self-direction and self-control . They learn to accept, even seek, responsibility . The ability to make innovative decisions is not restricted to management positions.

Self Fulfilling Prophecy:

Self Fulfilling Prophecy Pygmalion Effect or Self Fulfilling Prophecy : People’s expectations or beliefs determine their behaviour and performance, thus serving to make their expectations come true. Supervisory expectancy Leadership Subordinate self-expectancy Motivation Performance Reinforcement of positive performance expectations throughout the organization Golem Effect: It is negative of self-fulfilling prophecy. In this people who have low expectations from others lower their performance.

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