Skill Fitness and Fitness Programming

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Chapter 9:

Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization Chapter 9 Skill Fitness and Fitness Programming CHAPTER OUTLINE

Key Terms:

Key Terms Skill-related fitness: Fitness components important for success in skilful activities and athletic events Components: Agility Balance Coordination Power Reaction time Speed Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Key Terms:

Key Terms Agility: Ability to change body position and direction quickly and efficiently Balance: Ability to maintain the body in proper equilibrium Coordination: Integration of the nervous and muscular systems to produce correct, graceful, and harmonious body movements Power: Ability to produce maximum force in the shortest time Reaction time: Time required to initiate a response to a given stimulus Speed: Ability to propel the body or part of the body rapidly from one point to another Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Agility Assessment: SEMO Agility Test:

Start at point A, with back to free-throw line. When given the "go" command, side step from A to B (no crossover steps), backpedal from B to D, sprint forward from D to A, again backpedal from A to C, sprint forward from C to B, and sidestep from B to the finish line at A. Stopwatch is started at the "go" command and stopped when you cross the finish line. Take a practice trial and then use the best of two trials for final test score. 9.1 Agility Assessment: SEMO Agility Test

Balance Assessment: One Foot-Stand Test:

Balance Assessment: One Foot-Stand Test Use flat, smooth floor. Remove shoes and socks and stand on your preferred foot, placing the other foot on the inside of the supporting knee, and hands on hips. At the the "go" command, raise heel off the floor and balance as long as possible without moving the ball of the foot from its initial position. Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Coordination Assessment: Soda Pop Test:

Place right hand, with thumb up, on can 1 with elbow bent. At the start command, turn cans of soda pop upside down, placing can 1 inside circle 2, followed by can 2 inside circle 4, and then can 3 inside circle 6. Immediately return all three cans, starting with can 1, then can 2, and can 3, turning them right side up to original placement. On this "return trip," grasp the cans with the hand in a thumb-down position. The round-trip procedure is performed twice for one trial. 9.2 Coordination Assessment: Soda Pop Test

Power Assessment: Standing Long Jump:

Stand with feet several inches apart, centered on the tape measure, and toes just behind the takeoff line. Swing arms backward and bend knees and perform the jump by extending knees and swinging arms forward and jump as far as possible. 9.3 Power Assessment: Standing Long Jump

Reaction Time Assessment: Yardstick Test:

Reaction Time Assessment: Yardstick Test Hold tips of thumb and fingers in a "ready-to-pinch" position, about 1 inch apart and 3 inches beyond the edge of table. The yardstick is held so the zero point of the stick is even with the upper edge of the thumb and index finger. React by catching the stick when it is dropped. Do not look at the administrator's hand or move your hand up or down while trying to catch the stick. Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Speed Assessment: 50-Yard Dash:

Speed Assessment: 50-Yard Dash Sprint 50 yards as fast as you are able to do so. A starter raises one arm and asks, "Are you ready?" and the gives the command "go" while swinging the raised arm downward as a signal for the timer at the finish line to start the stopwatch. Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Percentile Ranks and Fitness Category for Skill-Related Fitness Components—Men:

9.1 Percentile Ranks and Fitness Category for Skill-Related Fitness Components—Men

Percentile Ranks and Fitness Category for Skill-Related Fitness Components—Women:

9.2 Percentile Ranks and Fitness Category for Skill-Related Fitness Components—Women

Skill-Fitness Categories:

9.3 Skill-Fitness Categories

Fitness Training:

Fitness Training One fun aspect of exercise is that you can choose from many different activities to promote fitness No single activity develops overall fitness The extent of contribution to various fitness components varies among activities You may select one or a combination of activities for your fitness program The choice of fitness activity should be based on personal enjoyment, convenience, and availability Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Popular Aerobic Activities:

Popular Aerobic Activities Walking Hiking Jogging Water-deep jogging Stair climbing Water aerobics Cycling Spinning Cross-training Racquet Sports Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Popular Aerobic Activities:

Popular Aerobic Activities Aerobics High impact Low impact Moderate impact Step aerobics Swimming Rope skipping Cross-country skiing In-line skating Rowing Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Critical Thinking:

Critical Thinking Sports participation is a good predictor of exercise adherence later in life. What previous experiences have you had with sports participation? Were these experiences positive, and what effect do they have on your current physical activity patterns? Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Cardiovascular Disease:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Cardiovascular Disease How much aerobic exercise is required to decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease? Research has not yet indicated the exact amount It appears that 300 calories expanded through daily physical activity significantly decreases risk Clinical data suggest that More than 1,500 weekly calories are required to stop the progression of atherosclerotic lesions Over 2,200 calories per week (the equivalent of 5 to 6 hours of weekly exercise) are needed for regression of lesions Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Asthma:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Asthma Can people with asthma exercise? Asthma is a condition that causes difficulty in breathing In a few people, asthma can be triggered by exercise itself (EIA) Asthmatics should obtain proper medication prior to initiating an exercise program A regular program is best During the initial stages of exercise, an intermittent program is recommended Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Asthma:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Asthma Can people with asthma exercise? Gradual warm-up and cool-down are essential Exercise in warm and humid conditions is beneficial For land-based activities, drinking water before, during, and after exercise is helpful An exercise mask is recommended during the winter months Exercising with someone else who understands the condition is important Always carrying medication to workouts is essential Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Diabetes:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Diabetes What precautions should diabetics take with respect to exercise? Consult a physician before starting an exercise program Wear a bracelet that identifies the condition For Type 1 diabetics Consume 15 to 30 grams of carbohydrates during each 30 minutes of intense exercise Ingest a carbohydrate snack after exercise Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Diabetes:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Diabetes ACSM Guidelines Burn at least 1,000 calories per week Exercise at low-to-moderate intensity 5 days per week for 30 minutes each session Check blood glucose levels before and after exercise Schedule exercise 1 to 3 hours after a meal Avoid exercise when insulin is peaking Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Diabetes:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Diabetes ACSM Guidelines Be ready to treat low blood sugar with a fast-acting source of sugar Discontinue exercise immediately if a reaction is about to occur When exercising outdoors, do so with someone who knows what to do in a diabetes-related emergency Strength train twice per week Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Pregnancy:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Pregnancy Is exercise safe during pregnancy? Recommendations for pregnant women with no additional risk: Do not start a new or more rigorous exercise program without proper medical clearance Accumulate 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activities on most days of the week Exercise at an intensity level between "fairly light" and "somewhat hard" using the Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale Gradually switch from weight-bearing and high-impact activities like jogging and aerobics, to nonweight-bearing/lower-impact activities such as walking, stationary cycling, swimming, and water aerobics Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Pregnancy:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Pregnancy Is exercise safe during pregnancy? Recommendations for pregnant women with no additional risk: Avoid exercising at an altitude above 6,000 feet (1,800 meters) and scuba diving Women who are accustomed to strenuous exercise may continue to do so in the early stages of pregnancy, but should gradually decrease the amount, intensity, and exercise mode as pregnancy advances Pay attention to the body’s signals of discomfort and distress and never exercise to exhaustion—when fatigued, slow down or take a day off Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Pregnancy:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Pregnancy Is exercise safe during pregnancy? Recommendations for pregnant women with no additional risk: To prevent fetal injury, avoid activities that involve potential contact, loss of balance, or cause even mild trauma to the abdomen (soccer, basketball, volleyball, Nordic or water skiing, ice skating, road cycling, horseback riding, or motorcycle riding) Do not exercise for weight-loss purposes during pregnancy Get proper nourishment (150 to 300 extra calories per day) and eat a small snack or drink some juice 20 to 30 minutes prior to exercise Prevent dehydration by drinking a cup of fluids 20 to 30 minutes before exercise and a cup of liquid every 15 to 20 minutes during Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Pregnancy:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Pregnancy Is exercise safe during pregnancy? Recommendations for pregnant women with no additional risk: During the first 3 months in particular, avoid exercising in the heat and wear clothing that allows for proper dissipation of heat (a body temperature above 102.6 ° F or 39.2 ° C can harm the fetus) After the first trimester, avoid exercises that require lying on the back; this position can block blood flow to the uterus and the baby Stretching exercises are to be performed gently because hormonal changes during pregnancy increase the laxity of muscles and connective tissue (these changes facilitate delivery, they also make women more susceptible to injuries during exercise ) Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Pregnancy:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Pregnancy Contraindications to exercise during pregnancy; s top exercising and seek medical advice if you experience any of the following : Unusual pain or discomfort, especially in the chest or abdominal area or Cramping, primarily in the pelvic or lower back areas Muscle weakness, excessive fatigue, or shortness of breath Abnormally high heart rate or a pounding (palpitations) heart rate Decreased fetal movement Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Pregnancy:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Pregnancy Contraindications to exercise during pregnancy; s top exercising and seek medical advice if you experience any of the following : Insufficient weight gain Amniotic fluid leakage Nausea, dizziness, or headaches Persistent uterine contractions Vaginal bleeding or rupture of the membranes Swelling of ankles, calves, hands, or face Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Clothing:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Clothing What type of clothing should I wear when I exercise? Clothing should fit comfortably and allow free movement Select clothing according to temperature, humidity, and exercise intensity Avoid nylon and rubberized materials Choose fabrics made from polypropylene, Capilene, Thermax, or any synthetic material that wicks moisture Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Clothing:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Clothing How should I dress for exercise in the cold? Wear several layers of lightweight clothing (warm air is trapped between layers) The first layer should wick moisture away Next, wear a layer of wool, dacron, or polyester fleece The outer layer should be waterproof, wind-resistant, and breathable Use a ski or face mask to protect the face In extreme cold, insulate exposed skin with petroleum jelly Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Heat:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Heat What are the guidelines for exercise in the heat? Heat is defined as an air temperature above 90° F with a relative humidity above 60% or a wet-bulb globe thermometer reading above 82.4° F Only minimal clothing is necessary during exercise in the heat Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Heat Cramps:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Heat Cramps Symptoms include cramps, spasms, muscle twitching To relieve heat cramps: stop exercising, get out of the heat, massage the painful area, stretch slowly, drink plenty of fluids (you may use water, fruit drinks, or electrolyte beverages) Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Heat Exhaustion:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Heat Exhaustion Symptoms include fainting; dizziness; profuse sweating; cold, clammy skin; weakness; headache; rapid, weak pulse Stop and find a cool place to rest the person; if conscious, provide cool water to drink (do not give water to an unconscious person) Loosen or remove clothing and rub body with a cool, wet towel, or ice packs Place person in a supine position with the legs elevated 8 to 12 inches If not fully recovered in 30 minutes, seek immediate medical attention Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Heat Stroke:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Heat Stroke Symptoms include Disorientation Warm, dry skin No sweating Rapid, full pulse Vomiting Diarrhea Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Heat Stroke:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Heat Stroke 104–105 ° F body temperature: Individual may feel a cold sensation in the trunk of body, goose bumps, nausea, throbbing in the temples, and numbness in the extremities May become incoherent 105–107 ° F body temperature: Disorientation, loss of fine-motor control, and muscular weakness set in 106 ° F and above: Serious neurologic injury and death may be imminent Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Specific Exercise Considerations: Heat Stroke:

Specific Exercise Considerations: Heat Stroke Requires immediate emergency medical attention; proper initial treatment of heat stroke is critical Request help and get the person into a cool, humidity-controlled place While waiting to be taken to emergency room, keep individual in semi-seated position, spray body with cool water and rub with cool towels; place cold packs in areas with abundant blood supply In any case of heat-related illness, if the person refuses water, vomits, or starts to lose consciousness, call for an ambulance immediately (911) Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Exercise-Related Injuries:

Exercise-Related Injuries The four most common causes of injuries High-impact activities Rapid conditioning programs Improper shoes or training surfaces Anatomical predisposition Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

R.I.C.E.:

R.I.C.E. Standard treatment for acute exercise-related injuries = R I C E R = rest I = ice application C = compression E = elevation Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Reference Guide for Exercise-Related Problems:

Reference Guide for Exercise-Related Problems 9.5

Aging & Exercise:

Aging & Exercise Physical activity provides psychological and physical benefits to older adults Regular physical activity promotes functional independence Cardiorespiratory endurance training helps to increase physical capacity, decrease the risk for disease, improve health status, and increase life expectancy Strength training decreases the rate at which strength and muscle mass are lost Recommended body composition is best maintained through a regular physical activity program Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Aging & Exercise:

Aging & Exercise Maximal oxygen uptake in nonexercisers decreases at twice the rate of regular exercisers Strength gains close to 200% have been found in previously inactive adults over age 90 Improved flexibility enhances mobility skills, promoting independence because it helps older adults successfully perform activities of daily living Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Active Leisure Time:

Active Leisure Time Use free time to participate in physical activities: Leisure walking and hiking Gardening and yard work Occupational work and chores Moderate-intensity sports, such as tennis, table tennis, badminton, golf or croquet Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Preparing for Participation in Sports:

Preparing for Participation in Sports Sports participation: Get fit to play, do not play to get fit Base fitness conditioning (at least 6 weeks) Cardiorespiratory endurance Muscular strength and endurance Muscular flexibility Body composition Sport-specific conditioning (a minimum of 4 weeks) Aerobic/anaerobic requirements Interval training Specific strength requirements Range of motion requirements Periodized training Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Key Terms:

Key Terms Overtraining: An emotional, behavioral, and physical condition marked by increased fatigue, decreased performance, persistent muscle soreness, mood disturbances, and feelings of staleness or burnout as a result of excessive physical training Volume: The total amount of training performed in a given work period (day, week, month, or season) Periodization: A training approach that divides the season into cycles, each of which includes a systematic variation in intensity and volume of training to enhance fitness and performance Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

Sample Sequence of Periodized Training:

9.7 Sample Sequence of Periodized Training

Critical Thinking:

Critical Thinking In your own experience with personal fitness programs throughout the years, what factors have motivated you and helped you the most to stay with the program? What factors have kept you from being physically active, and what can you do to change these factors? Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

You can do it!:

You can do it! Once proper exercise, nutrition, and behavioral modification guidelines are understood; implementing a fitness lifestyle program is not as difficult as you think With adequate preparation and personal behavioral analysis, you are now ready to design, implement, evaluate, and adhere to a lifetime fitness program that will enhance your functional capacity and zest for life Benefits of Skill-Related Fitness Performance Tests for Skill-Related Fitness Specific Exercise Considerations Exercise-Related Injuries Exercise and Aging Leisure-Time Physical Activity Preparing for Participation in Sports Periodization

End of Chapter:

End of Chapter

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