Judiciary System

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JUDICIARY SYSTEM INDIA Judiciary of India as of today is the continuation of the British Legal system established by the English in the mid-19th century. Before the arrival of the Europeans in India, it was governed by laws based on The Arthashastra, dating from the 400 BC, and the Manusmriti from 100 AD.

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JUDICIARY SYSTEM UNITED KINGDOM Law of England and Wales There are various levels of judiciary in England and Wales — different types of courts have different styles of judges. They also form a strict hierarchy of importance, in line with the order of the courts in which they sit, so that judges of the Court of Appeal of England and Wales are generally given more weight than district judges sitting in County Courts and Magistrates.

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UK Lord Chief Justice and Lord Chancellor Since 3 April 2006 the Lord Chief Justice has been the overall head of the judiciary. Previously he was second to the Lord Chancellor, but that office lost its judicial functions under the Constitutional Reform Act 2005.[1] The Lord Chief Justice is also the head of the Criminal Division of the Court of Appeal. He was also President of the Queen's Bench Division of the High Court, but on becoming head of the judiciary that responsibility was transferred to a new office. Although the Lord Chancellor is no longer a judge, he still exercises disciplinary authority over the judges, jointly with the Lord Chief Justice. He also has a role in appointing judges.

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UK Heads of Division There are four Heads of Divisions — the Master of the Rolls, the President of the Queen's Bench Division, the President of the Family Division and the Chancellor of the High Court. The Master of the Rolls is head of the Civil Division of the Court of Appeal. The other Heads are in charge of the three divisions of the High Court. The Chancellor of the High Court is President of the Chancery Division of the High Court. Until 2006 this role was nominally held by the Lord Chancellor, but was in practice delegated to the Vice-Chancellor. The Vice-Chancellor was renamed Chancellor of the High Court when the Lord Chancellor's judicial role was abolished

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UK Justices of the Supreme Court The judges of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom are known as Justices of the Supreme Court, and they are also Privy Counsellors. Before the creation of the Supreme Court, the highest court in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (and the highest court in civil matters in Scotland) was the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords, in which sat the Law Lords (more properly, the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary).

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UK Court of Appeal Judges of the Court of Appeal are known as Lord Justices, and they too are Privy Counsellors. Before swearing in they may be addressed as The Honourable Lord Justice Smith, and after swearing in as the Right Honourable Lord Justice Smith. Female Lord Justices are only known as Lady Justices informally. Addressed as "My Lord" or "My Lady". Formerly, Lord Justices of Appeal could only be drawn from barristers of at least 10 years' standing. In practice, much greater experience was necessary and, in 2004, calls for increased diversity among the judiciary were recognised and the qualification period was changed, so that, as of 21 July 2008, a potential Lord Justice of Appeal must satisfy the judicial-appointment eligibility condition on a 7-year basis.

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UK High Court judge High Court judges are not normally Privy Counsellors. High Court judges are therefore referred to as the (Right) Honourable Mr/Mrs Justice Smith. Addressed as "My Lord" or "My Lady".

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UK Circuit Judges Unlike the more senior judges, Circuit Judges are referred to as His/Her Honour Judge {surname} e.g. His/Her Honour Judge Smith. If a circuit judge is appointed who has the same surname as another serving circuit judge, he (she) will be referred to as His (Her) Honour Judge {first name} {surname}.

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UK Recorder (judge) A Recorder is a part-time circuit judge, usually a practicing barrister or solicitor. Recorders are addressed in court in the same way as circuit judges (as 'Your Honour'). There is no formal abbreviation for the position and recorders are referred to as 'Mr/Mrs Recorder Smith' (as opposed to circuit judges, who can be referred to as 'HHJ Smith' in judgments, law reports or other legal documents).

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UK Deputy District Judges A practising solicitor or barrister who sits part-time as a District Judge (who may be taking his first steps on the route to becoming a full-time District Judge). Retired District Judges may occasionally sit as Deputies. Magistrates Laymen drawn from the community who generally sit in threes in order to give judgment in Magistrates' Courts and Youth Courts.

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United States h Philadelphia City Hall

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United States JUDICIARY US The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States, and leads the federal judiciary. It consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate Justices, who are nominated by the President and confirmed with the "advice and consent" (majority vote) of the Senate. Once appointed, Justices effectively have life tenure, serving "during good Behaviour",[1] which terminates only upon death, resignation, retirement, or conviction on impeachment . Continued………………

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United States The Court meets in Washington, D.C. in the United States Supreme Court Building. The Supreme Court is primarily an appellate court, but it has original jurisdiction over a small range of cases.[3] The Supreme Court is sometimes informally referred to as the High Court

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