Chapter 8 : Chapter 8 Civilising the “Native”, educating the Nation The tradition of orientation : The tradition of orientation In 1973, a person named William Jones arrived in Calcutta. He had an appointment as a junior Judge at the supreme Court. Slide 3: Jones was a linguist. He had studied Greek and Latin at oxford, knew french and English, had picked up Arabic from a friend and had also learnt persian. Slide 4: Jones discovered that his interest were shared by many British officials living in Calcutta at the time.
Englishmen like Henry Thomas Colebrook and Nathaniel Halhed were also busy discovering the ancient Indian Sanskrit and persian works into English. Slide 5: Madrasa was set up in calcutta in 1781 to promote the study of Arabic, Persian and Islamic law.
Hindu college was set up in Benaras in 1791 to encourage the study of ancient sanskrit text that would be useful for the administration of the country. Slide 6: Madrasa-An Arabic word for a place of learning; any type of school or college. Slide 7: Hindu College, Benaras Slide 8: Monument of Warren Hastings, by Richard Westmacott, 1830, now in Victoria Memorial in Calcutta. Slide 9: Munshi- A person who can read, write and teach persian. Slide 10: James Mill was one of those who attacked the orientalists. The British effort, he declared, should not be to teach what the natives wanted, or what they respected, in order to please them and “win a place in their heart”. Slide 11: By 1830s the attack on the orientalists became sharper. One of the most outspoken and influential of such critics of the time was Thomas Babington Macaulay Slide 12: Thomas Babington Macaulay in his study. Slide 13: The english education act of 1835 was introduced. The decision was to make english the medium of instruction for higher education and to stop the promotion of oriental institution like the calcutta Madrasa and Benaras Sanskrit College.
These institutions were seen as “temples of darkness that were falling of themselves into decay”. Education for commerce : Education for commerce In 1854, the court of Diretors of the East India Company in London sent an educational despatch to the Governor-General in India. Issued by Charles Wood, the president of the Slide 15: Of control of the company, it has come to be know as wood’s despatch. Slide 16: Bombay University in the nineteenth century. The demand for moral education : The demand for moral education William Carey was a scottish missionary who helped establish the serampore Mission Slide 18: Serampore College on the banks of the river Hooghly near Calcutta. What happened to the local schools? : What happened to the local schools? The report of William Adams
In 1830s, William Adam, a Scottish missionary, toured the districts of Bengal and Bihar. A village pathshala : A village pathshala Slide 21: Mahatma Gandhi along with Kasturba Gandhi sitting with Rabindranath Tagore and a group of girls at Santiniketan “English education has enslaved us” : “English education has enslaved us” Mahatma Gandhi strongly felt that Indian languages ought to be the medium of teaching. Education in English crippled Indians, distanced them from their own social surroundings and made them “strangers in their own lands”. Slide 23: Tagore’s “abode of peace”
Rabidranath Tagore started the institution in1901.
As a child, Tagore hated going to school. He found it suffocating and oppressive. The school appeared like a prison, for he could never do what he felt like doing. Slide 24: By the mid-nineteenth century, schools for girls were being set up by Christian missionaries and Indian reform organisations. Thank You. : Thank You.