India_between_1858-1947 1

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INDIAN BETWEEN 1858-1947 POLITICAL,ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL POLICES BRITISH POLICY TOWARDS INDIAN PRINCESS BRITISH POLICY TOWARDS NEIGHBOURING COUNTRIES

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Introduction The revolt of 1857 opened a new phase in the history of India. The reigns of Indian Government were passed into the Hands of Queen Victoria, the then ruler of England. To this effect the British Parliament passed an act in 1858, according to which the rule of the English East India Company in the administration of India was ended. Our country came under the direct control of the British Government. QUEEN VICTORIA RULE OF QUEEN VICTORIA

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A minister of British Cabinet called Secretary of state for India was made responsible for administration in India. The Governor-General of India was hereafter called the Viceroy. Queen Victoria issued a proclamation and it was read at a Durbar held at Allahabad on 1st November 1858. QUEEN VICTORIA GOVERNOR GENERAL SECERATARY OF STATE

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It assured to respect the rights of Indian princess, pay due regard to Indian customs and follow a policy of Justice and religious toleration. It further promised that all qualified persons of British empire could enter administrative services irrespective of their race and creed. We will respect your rights, pay due to Indian customs and we will follow the justice and religious toleration QUEEN VICTORIA INDIAN PRINCESS

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In 1870 a telegraph line was laid between India and England which enabled the Governor-General to be in contact with the British Government in his day to day administration. The opening of Suez Canal in 1869 and the introduction of steam navigation reduced the travelling time and distance between India and England. TELEGRAPH LINE IN 1870

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From 1858 the financial policies of the British also underwent some changes. Hitherto there was no system of Budget. Budget means annual estimates of the revenues of the Government from various sources and its expenditure on various items. EXPENDITURE ON CONSTRUCTION

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In 1860 the system of Budget was introduced by preparing a list of items from which revenues were expected such as post offices, railways, land revenue, stamp duties, excise, sale of opium and salt etc. The revenues thus raised were distributed among central and state governments. IN 1860 THE BUDGET WAS INTRODUCED

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Stamp duties were collected for taking a case to the law courts and on business deals. On imports from other countries, customs duty was levied. Income tax also was introduced in 1860.The people of India paid all these taxes to Government which was not responsible for them. TAX FOR IMPORTED ITEMS IS LEVIED

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Queen Victoria’s proclamation promised to respect and honor the rights and dignity of the Indian princess. British Government made friendship with native Rajas and Stopped extending British empire into their kingdom. This is the proclamation promise that to respect and honor the rights and dignity of the Indian Princess QUEEN VICTORIA INDIAN PRINCESS

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The status of Jagirs was raised to that of princely states 562 native states were ruled by native rulers. Some of them were as big as Britain. So after 1857 India was divided as British India which was directly ruled by the British and Native India ruled by Indian Princess. JAGIRS PRINCELY STATES ADMINISTRATION

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The Act of 1876 made Queen Victoria the ruler of England as the Empress of India from 1st january,1877.When this was announced in an imperial Assembly, a terrible famine raged in the country and without paying attention to the sufferings of the people, the Indian Princess were busy showing their grandeur at the Assembly. QUEEN VICTORIA BECAME THE EMPRESS OF INDIA FROM 1ST JANUARY, 1877 FAMINE

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Due to rise of British Authority in India the power and status of these native Rulers was reduced. It was responsibility of the British to protect the country from internal and external dangers. In case of a revolt or maladministration in any state the British Government could depose the ruler and appoint a successor but the state was not annexed. We are going to fight against you If there is any mal administration I will depose you Im appointing you as the ruler

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The Indian states had no international status. They could not establish relations with other countries. Lord Curzon banned foreign trade by Native Rajas. The British Government fixed the number of troops in each Indian state. BRITISH TROOPS IN INDIAN STATES FOREIGN TRADE

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These troops and people of these states including those who were abroad were considered as subjects of the British empire. The post and telegraph system and railways in these states were under the control of the British. POST OFFICE TELEGRAPH

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Thus the then British Government was able to establish their authority over the Indian states without annexing them. The native princess also accepted all these conditions because they had no responsibility towards the welfare of the people. WE WILL ESTABLISH OUR AUTHORITY IN INIDAN STATES WITHOUT ANNEXING THEM IM ACCEPTING ALL YOUR CONDITIONS

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But the conditions of the people living in Indian states was worse when compared to the people living in British India. The native rulers supported the British for the survival of their kingdoms and in turn they received titles from them. POOR IN NATIVE INDIA RICH IN BRITISH INDIA

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As the British were expanding their authority in certain Asian countries, Russia also wanted to extend its influence in Central Asia. The British waged wars on Afghanistan with an intention to increase their influence that country and to check the Russian advance towards India.

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In 1839 British troops attacked Afghanistan. Dost Mohammed the then ruler of Afghanistan though capable, was defeated by the British interference in their country and demanded the restoration of dost Mohammed. Consequently the British were forced to restore Dost Mohammed. DOST MOHAMMED

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The British incurred heavy losses in this war. However friendly relations was maintained between India and Afghanistan for some time. In 1878 British again invaded Afghanistan but this time also they were unsuccessful. They could establish their authority over the foreign policy of Afghanistan. FRIENDLY RELATIONSHIP WAS MAINTAINED BETWEEN AFGHANISTAN AND INDIA TILL 1878

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Forty years later another war was fought between Afghanistan and the British and the Afghans could gain back their independence. Further the British Government in India tried to occupy the region between India and Afghanistan. FORTY YEARS LATER AFGHANISTAN COULD REGAIN THEIR INDEPENDENCE

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Further the British Government in India tried to occupy the region between India and Afghanistan .Even though the British Government in India tried to occupy the region between Indian and Afghanistan. Even though the British built roadways and railways in that area the freedom loving tribes of north-west region did not yield to the British.

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During 1824-26 a war was fought between the British and Burma. The British occupied Assam which was under Burmese King and some other territories of Burma. In 1852 Burma was again invaded and the coastal Burma was occupied by the British. BURMESE KING

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1880 onwards French started to increase their influence in upper Burma which was then ruled by the Burmese King. The British asked the Burmese King to accept their control over Burma’s foreign policy in order to check the growth of French influence. ACCEPT THE CONTROL OVER BURMA’S FOREIGN POLICY

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Burmese King refused the above proposal and objected the stationing of a British Resident in Mandalay, the capital of Burma. Consequently the British troops invaded Burma in 1885 and annexed it and it was made a province of British India. Burma also got independence in 1948 along with India. I DON’T WANT THIS PROPOSAL AND I OBJECT YOU TO STAY IN MANDALAY

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