Knowledge Management

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How to Manage Knowledge?

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1 Knowledge Management Subrat P Pattanayak Faculty, RIMS

Knowledge:

2 Knowledge As a form of capital, must be exchangeable among persons, and must be able to grow

Knowledge:

3 Knowledge Information that is contextual , relevant, and actionable Knowledge is INFORMATION IN ACTION Higher than data and information

Knowledge Types:

4 Knowledge Types Advantaged knowledge Base knowledge Trivial knowledge Explicit knowledge Tacit knowledge

Explicit Knowledge:

5 Explicit Knowledge Objective, rational, technical Easily documented Easily transferred / taught / learned

Tacit Knowledge:

6 Tacit Knowledge Subjective, cognitive, experiential learning Hard to document Hard to transfer / teach / learn Involves a lot of human interpretation

Data, Information and Knowledge:

7 Data, Information and Knowledge

Knowledge Management (KM):

8 Knowledge Management (KM) A process of elicitation, transformation, and diffusion of knowledge throughout an enterprise so that it can be shared and thus REUSED Helps organizations find, select, organize, disseminate, and transfer important information and expertise Transforms data / information into actionable knowledge to be used effectively anywhere in the organization by anyone

KM Objectives:

9 KM Objectives Create knowledge repositories Improve knowledge access Enhance the knowledge environment Manage knowledge as an asset

KMS Manage:

10 KMS Manage Knowledge creation through learning Knowledge capture and explication Knowledge sharing and communication through collaboration Knowledge access Knowledge use and reuse Knowledge archiving

Knowledge Repository:

11 Knowledge Repository Not a database Not a knowledge base (like for ES) A collection of internal and external knowledge

Knowledge Repository Types:

12 Knowledge Repository Types External Structured internal knowledge Informal internal knowledge

KM Activities:

13 KM Activities Externalization Internalization Intermediation Cognition

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Intermediation: Intermediation refers to the brokering or knowledge transfer between an appropriate knowledge provider and knowledge seeker. Its role is to "match" a knowledge seeker with the optimal source of knowledge for that seeker. By doing so, intermediation ensures a much more efficient transfer of knowledge.

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Externalization : Externalization refers to the transfer of knowledge from the minds of its holders into an external repository, in the most efficient way possible. The function of externalization is to provide the sharing of knowledge. This is where Competitive Intelligence/Business Intelligence comes in. Through KM tools it is possible to track the vast quantity of data about competitors — from news stories to price changes.

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Internalization: Internalization is the extraction of knowledge from the external repository, and the filtering of this knowledge to provide greater relevance to the knowledge seeker. Knowledge should be presented to the user in the form most suitable to its comprehension. This, this function may include interpretation and/or reformatting of the presentation of the knowledge.

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To implement this function, companies can build yellow pages thus mapping and categorizing the skills and work experience of the organization. Another aspect of internalization would be the documentation of best practices.

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Cognition: Cognition is the function of systems to make decisions based on available knowledge. Cognition is the application of knowledge which has been exchanged through the preceding three functions.

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Measurement: Measurement refers to all KM activities that measure, map and quantify corporate knowledge and the performance of KM solutions. This function acts to support the other four functions, rather than to actually manage the knowledge itself.

KM Features:

20 KM Features Create a knowledge culture Capture knowledge Generate knowledge Explicate (and digitize) knowledge Share and reuse knowledge Renew knowledge

Cyclic Model of KM:

21 Cyclic Model of KM Create knowledge Capture knowledge Refine knowledge Store knowledge Manage knowledge Disseminate knowledge

Cyclic Model of KM:

22 Cyclic Model of KM Manage Knowledge Store Knowledge Disseminate Knowledge Refine Knowledge Create Knowledge Capture Knowledge

KM Examples:

23 KM Examples Mitre Dow Chemical Company Xerox Chrysler Monsanto Chevron Buckman Laboratories KPMG Ernst & Young Arthur Andersen Andersen Consulting

Why Adopt KM:

24 Why Adopt KM Cost savings Better performance Demonstrated success Share Best Practices Competitive advantage

Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO):

25 Chief Knowledge Officer (CKO) Maximize firm’s knowledge assets Design and implement KM strategies Effectively exchange knowledge assets Promote system use

KM Development:

26 KM Development Need a knowledge strategy Identify knowledge assets

KM Development:

27 KM Development Identify the problem Prepare for change Create the team Map out the knowledge Create a feedback mechanism Define the building blocks Integrate existing information systems Decision Support Systems and Intelligent Systems, Efraim Turban and Jay E. Aronson, 6th edition. Copyright 2001, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ

Strategies for Successful KM Implementation:

28 Strategies for Successful KM Implementation Establish a KM methodology Designate a pointperson Empower knowledge workers Manage customer-centric knowledge Manage core competencies

More Strategies:

29 More Strategies Foster collaboration and innovation Learn from best practices Extend knowledge sourcing Interconnect communities of expertise (communities of practice) Report the measured value of knowledge assets

KM Methods, Technologies, and Tools:

30 KM Methods, Technologies, and Tools Email or messaging Document management Search engines Enterprise information portal Data warehouse Groupware Workflow management Web-based training Others

KM Tool Categories:

31 KM Tool Categories Information architecture Technical architecture Application architecture

KM Software:

32 KM Software Knowware still developing but… DecisionSuite Wincite DataWare KnowledgeX Knowledge Share

KM Success:

33 KM Success Economic performance Technical and organizational infrastructure Standard, flexible knowledge structure Knowledge-friendly culture Clear purpose and language Change in motivational practices Multiple channels for knowledge transfer Worthwhile level of process orientation Nontrivial motivational encouragement Senior management support

Measuring Success:

34 Measuring Success Balanced Scorecard Skandia Navigator Economic Value Added Inclusive Valuation Methodology

KM Failure Causes:

35 KM Failure Causes Unclear definition of knowledge Overemphasis on knowledge stock, not flow Belief that knowledge exists outside people’s heads Not recognizing the importance of managing knowledge Failure to manage tacit knowledge

More Failure Causes:

36 More Failure Causes Failure to disentangle knowledge from its uses Downplaying reason and thinking Focusing on the past and present, not the future Failure to recognize the importance of experimentation Substituting technology contact for human interface Overemphasis on measuring knowledge, not its outcomes

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