Northern Plains of India

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TITLE : Northern Plains of India S.SUBHIKSHA Class IX-B SOCIAL(Geography)

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Northern Plains of India The Northern Fertile Plain lies to the south of Himalayan Region. It is also called the Gangetic Plain. The soil of this plain is built of the sediments brought down by the rivers from Himalayas. Such plain is called an alluvial plain and is very fertile. This plain is one of the largest and most fertile plains of the World. It is the most thickly populated plain. This is also the major crop growing area in India. This plain is drained by Sutlej, Ganga, Brahmaputra and their tributaries.

Northern Plains of India: 

Northern Plains of India Three main rivers, the Sutlej, Ganga, Brahmaputra and their tributaries flow through this plain. So this plain can be divided into three parts namely : 1. The Sutlej Basin 2. The Ganga Basin and 3. The Brahmaputra Basin. An area through which a river and its tributaries flow is called its basin.

Northern Plains of India: 

Northern Plains of India The Northern Plains of India are to the south of the Himalayan area. Deccan Plateau is south of the Northern Plains of India. There are three rivers in this area. They are the Sutlej, Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers.

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Importance of the Northern Plain This plain is made up of the alluvial soil brought down by the rivers. This soil is very soft and fertile. Major crops such as wheat, rice, sugarcane, pulses, oil seeds and jute are grown here. This plain is the 'food bowl’ of India. The land of this plain is soft, level and flat. Therefore wells, tube-wells and canals can be dug for irrigation. Due to proper irrigation it is the largest producer of food grains in India. This plain is very important for the economic development of India. The land being even, the transportation and communication is easy. This plain has a network of railways and roads. Some important industries like iron and steel, jute, cement, sugar and textile are spread evenly over the whole region.

Importance of the Northern Plain : 

Importance of the Northern Plain This is one of the most thickly populated plain of the world. The most thickly populated States of India — Uttar Pradesh and Bihar — lie in this plain. This plain gets sufficient rainfall. There are many rivers, streams and lakes. There is also rich vegetation. These factors affect the climate and make it tolerable. The climate of the Northern Plain is very cold in winter and very hot in summer.

Importance of the Northern Plain : 

Most of the Himdu religious centres are located here. Eg : Khasi , Rishikeshvar , Gaya, etc..

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( i ) They are formed by the alluvial deposits of the rivers and their tributaries. (ii) They extend from Sutlej river in the west to Brahmaputra in the east. (iii) They are divided into three parts : ( i ) Indus plain (ii) Gaga plain ( iii) Brahmaputra plain. Northern plains of India :

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Northern Plains of India :-The northern plain are about 2400 km long and 240 to 320 km broad. :-It is the most densely populated physiographic division . :-Agriculturally it is the most productive area because of rich soil cover , adequate water supply and favorable climate. :-The northern plains are classified into 4 sections due to the different relief : Bhabar , Terai , Bhangar , Khadar .

Northern Plains of India: 

Bhabar The rivers, after descending from the mountains deposit pebbles in a narrow belt of about 8 to 16 km in width lying parallel to the slopes of the Shiwaliks . It is known as bhabar . All the streams disappear in this bhabar belt.


Khadar The soil in this region contains calcareous deposites locally known as kankar . The newer, younger deposits of the flood plains are called khadar . They are renewed almost every year and so are fertile, thus, ideal for intensive agriculture.


Bhangar The largest part of the northern plain is formed of older alluvium. They lie above the flood plains of the rivers and present a terrace like feature. This part is known as bhangar .


Terai South of this belt, the streams and rivers re-emerge and create a wet, swampy and marshy region known as terai . This was a thickly forested region full of wildlife.