vsat training


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VSAT VSAT is an abbreviation for a Very Small Aperture Terminal. It is basically a two-way satellite ground station with a less than 3 meters tall (most of them are about 0.75 m to 1.2 m tall) dish antenna stationed. The transmission rates of VSATs are usually from very low and up to 4 Mbit/s. These VSATs' primary job is accessing the satellites in the geosynchronous orbit and relaying data from terminals in earth to other terminals and hubs. They will often transmit narrowband data, such as the transactions of credit cards, polling, RFID (radio frequency identification) data, and SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition), or broadband data, such as satellite Internet, VOIP, and videos. However, the VSAT technology is also used for various types of communications. BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

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Satellite Link components Satellite Hub Component Ground Segment Space Segment Link component Remote Component BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

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Remote Site Equipments IDU: The IDU is connected to the ODU by the IFL Intra facility link .In consumer satellite television applications, the IDU usually consists of a satellite receiver which is connected to a television.In consumer satellite Internet applications, the IDU usually consists if a satellite modem which is connected to a computer or a router LNB: An LNB - Low Noise Block , is used for communications (broadcast) satellite reception. The LNB is usually affixed either in or on the satellite dish. It is used for receiving the signal ORU: ORU is used to transmit signal. Its also referred as BUC. A BUC (Block Up-Converter) takes an L Band input and transmits it upstream to the satellite on Ka, Ku, or C band. IFL Cable: IFL refers to the cable which connects the ODU with the IDU .IFL cable is often a shielded coaxial cable terminated with BNC,F type & N type connectors. Antenna : An Antenna is a device used for transmitting and receiving radio signals. Feed horn :The feed horn is the part of a satellite dish system which gathers the reflected signal from the dish and focuses it towards the LNB. BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

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KU Band: The Ku band (Kurtz-under band) is primarily used for satellite communications, particularly for editing and broadcasting satellite television. This band is split into multiple segments broken down into geographical regions, as determined by the ITU (International Telecommunication Union). The Ku band is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 11.7 to 12.7GHz. (downlink frequencies) and 14 to 14.5GHz (uplink frequencies). EX-C Band is the original frequency allocation for communications satellites. Satellites: GE-1A Ku, Ex-C ( Insat 3B ,Insat 3E ) Frequencies & Satellites BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

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Frequency Division Multiple Access In FDMA scheme, different stations in the network / channels in a station are separated in frequency domain and a pair of frequency (one each for up link and down link) is assigned to each station. This is the oldest and the simplest form of multiple access scheme. Ex: SCPC MCPC SCPC/DAMA Time Division Multiple Access In TDMA the separation of different stations with respect to the satellite is done in the time domain. Each station / traffic channel is allotted specific timeslots over which they transmit the data in a burst mode. Ex: TDM / TDMA VSAT Shared Hub Networks F/TDMA Each Earth Station transmits in the assigned time slot (like TDMA) at the assigned carrier frequency. Both the slot allocation and the frequency of transmission may vary continuously. Ex: TDM / FTDMA VSAT Shared Hub Networks BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE Access mechanism

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Products 1.Sky ballaster 2. Viasat(scentific atlanta) 3.Viasat(skylink) 4.Encoder(puncom) 5.Decoder(beetel) BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

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Sky edge hub architecture BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

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CPCI ( Compact PC ) Cage --DPS --HSP --NMS NAS -( Network Attached Storage ) IPE - IP Encapsulator QOS- (Quality of Service) Modulator Receiver Cage The SkyEdge Hub contains the following main components: BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

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Case Study on SCPC PAMA solution on Captive Hub – Indiasign BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

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Satcom segments Broadcasters - Teleports for TV uplinking - DTH - Contribution Feeds - DSNG Telco - Intercontinent Connectivity Service Providers - Voice/Video/Data Defense - Strategic applications Others - Marine, Airborne, Mobile Telephony BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

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VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary AnalogThe representation of information in variable intensity and/or frequency by a continuous signal. Antenna.Equipment that sends and/or receives signals from a satellite. Aperture.A cross sectional area of an antenna exposed to the satellite signal. Apogee.The highest point in the satellite’s orbit (km); the point in the orbit of a satellite where it is farthest from the object about which it revolves. ASCII .A code with seven information signals and one parity check signal. BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary Asynchronous Transmission. Data transmission in which each information character or byte is individually synchronized, usually by the use of start or stop elements. ATP Acceptance Test Procedure AttenuationThe loss in power of electromagnetic signals between transmission and reception points. AZ-EL Mount.Antenna mount that requires two separate adjustments-of azimuth and elevation-to move from one satellite to another. AzimuthThe angle between an antenna beam and the meridian plane, measured along a horizontal plane. BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary Bandwidth.The range of frequencies utilized for the transmission of a signal or group of inter-related signals expressed in Hertz (Hz). Baseband.A video or audio signal transmitted at its original frequency BER (Bit Error Rate). The percentage of received bits that are in error during transmission; expressed as a number referenced to a power of ten. Beamwidth.The angular coverage of an antenna beam. Earth station beams are usually specified at the half-power (or -3 dB) point. Satellite beams are based on the area to be covered. Bisync. Binary Synchronous Communications (BSC). BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary Bit A .single unit of information. BPSK. Binary Phase Shift Keying. BTV (Business Television). Corporate communications tool involving video transmissions of information via satellite. Common uses of business television are for meetings, product introductions and training. Carrier. A continuous frequency capable of being modulated with a second data-carrying signal. Cassegrain. Antenna comprised of two reflectors, the parabolic reflector and an hyperbolic subreflector at the focus point, which reflects signals back into the feed. BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary C-Band. Frequencies of approximately 4 to 6 GHz for satellite downlink and uplink transmission, respectively. Channel. Path for electrical communication between two facilities. Circular Polarization. A mode of transmission in which signals are downlinked in a rotating corkscrew pattern. A satellite’s transmission capacity can be doubled by using both right-hand and left-hand circular polarization. C/N (Carrier-to-Noise Ratio). Refers to the ratio of the satellite carrier (or signal) to noise level in a given channel. Usually measured in dB at the LNA output. BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary Collocation. Placement of several satellites near each other in orbit. This allows a single fixed antenna to receive signals from all of the satellites without tracking. DAMA. Demand Assignment Multiple Access. dB. Decibel. A unit of signal measurement that expresses a ratio between two electrical signals or levels logarithmically. dBW. An expression of power in dB relative to one watt. D/C (Down Converter). Equipment that performs frequency conversion to a lower (IF) band. BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary DCE. Data Circuit Terminating Equipment.DelayThe time it takes for a signal to go from the sending station through the satellite to the receiving station .Demodulator. Equipment that converts the RF signal from the carrier into base band signals (video, audio, or data) for further processing or amplification. Digital. The representation of information in binary form (ones and zeros), discontinuous in time. Downlink. Transmission of information from a satellite to earth for reception by earth stations. DPSK. Differential Phase Shift Keying BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary Driver. A software module that manages an I/O port to an external device. DTMF (Dual Tone Multi frequency). A method of signaling and basis for operation of push-button telephone sets. Duplex Operation. Method in which transmission is possible simultaneously in both directions of a telecommunications channel. Generally, two frequencies in radio communications are required .Earth Station. Any system (combination of satellite antenna, amplification, conversion, and reception electronics) that can either transmit to or receive signals from orbiting satellites. BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary Eclipse. When a satellite passes through the line between the earth and the sun or the earth and another satellite. EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power). Refers to measure of satellite signal strength on the ground. Elevation. The angle between an antenna beam and the horizontal plane. Encoder. Equipment that converts a base band analog input into a digital data stream. Encryption. The process of coding, "scrambling," or altering a signal electronically so it can only be decoded by recipients who have the equipment and knowledge to reverse the encryption code. BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary F/D. Ratio of antenna focal length to antenna diameter. A higher ration means a shallower dish. FDMA(Frequency Division Multiple Access).Refers to the use of multiple carriers within the same transponder where each uplink has an assigned frequency slot and bandwidth. FEC (Forward Error Correction). A technique that ensures the transmitted message is received at the receiving end without error. Feeds. Device mounted at the focus point of the antenna that gathers signals reflected from the dish. FEP. Front End Processor. BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary Focal Length. Distance from the feed to the center of the dish Footprint. The area of the earth's surface that a satellite's signal is expected to cover. Shown as an EIRP contour map xpressed in dBW. Gain. Increased signal power usually the result of amplification; measured in decibels. Geostationary. Refers to a geosynchronous satellite angle with zero inclination, so the satellite appears to hover over one spot on the earth’s equator. Geosynchronous. Refers to the orbit in which the speed of a satellite’s orbit is synchronized with the speed of the earth’s rotation so that they are always positioned above the same spot on the earth. For this to occur, the satellite must be in orbit 22,300 miles over the equator, Most communications satellites are in geosynchronous orbit. BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary GHz (Gigahertz). One billion cycles per second. G/T (Gain-to-Noise Temperature). Ratio of the gain of an antenna compared to the receive system noise temperature; expressed in dB per degree K. Hertz (Hz). One cycle per second. HPA (High-Power Amplifier). Earth station equipment that amplifies the transmit RF signal. HPC (High-Power Converter). VSAT RF equipment that up converts and amplifies transmit signals. Hub. The central earth station satellite transmission facility that is the focal point for communicating to remote locations within a satellite communications network. IF (Intermediate Frequency). The frequency of a satellite receiver after down conversion or a satellite modulator before up conversion BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary IFL (Interfacility Link). A cable that provides communication between the ODU and IDU I/O. Input/Output IP. Internet Protocol. Kbps. One thousand bits per second. kHz (Kilohertz). One thousand cycles per second. Ku-Band. Frequencies approximately in the 12 to 14 GHz range for satellite reception and transmission, respectively. LAN. Local Area Network. LLC. Logical Link Control. BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary LNA (Low Noise Amplifier) .Equipment that receives the satellite signal reflected by the antenna and amplifies it to the level needed by the satellite receiving equipment. LNB (Low Noise Block Down converter). Satellite receiving equipment that converts all signals from the LNA to the lower IF frequencies. LNC (Low Noise Converter). Part of the earth station transmission subsystem consisting of an LNA and down converter. Mbps. One million bits per second. M&C (Monitor and Control). Equipment that monitors and controls Sky star network traffic and hub and VSAT equipment status. BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary Modem (Modulator/Demodulator). Equipment that converts between digital data and audio tones for transmission and reception over analog channels. Modulator. Equipment that converts audio, video, or data signals (baseband) into an RF signal. MSK. Minimum Shift Keying. MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure). Average length of time for which a system, or a component of a system, works without fault. MTTR (Mean Time To Respond). Average time taken to arrive on site to correct a fault in a system or component. Multiplexing. A technique that combines multiple data channels on a single transmission channel BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary MUX. Multiplexer equipment. Noise. Extraneous and unwanted signal disturbances. PA/TDMA. Permanent Assignment Time Division Multiple Access. POP. Point of Presence. POS. Point of Sale. Protocol. Formal set of rules governing the format, timing, sequence, and error control of messages on a data network. PSK. Phase Shift Keying. PVC. Permanent Virtual Circuit. QPSK. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying. RA. Random Access. RA/TDMA. Random Access Time Division Multiple Access BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary RF (Radio Frequency). The frequency range from 10 kHz to 100 GHz used for transmitting data, audio, or video. Redundancy. A secondary system of backup equipment that performs similarly to a primary system, thereby preventing network downtime and system outages. Response Time. The elapsed time between the end of an inquiry and the beginning of the response. RFT (Radio Frequency Terminal). Equipment including an antenna, U/C, D/C, HPA, and LNA which provides the up and down conversion of signals in a satellite-based network. R/O (Receive Only). Referring to an earth station that receives transmissions only and does not transmit. BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary Routing. The process of selecting the correct circuit path for a message. SAC (Satellite Access Controller). Sky star equipment that contains the satellite transmission facility components and data network components. SCPC. Single Channel Per Carrier. SDLC. Synchronous Data Link Control. SNA. System Network Architecture. S/N (Signal-to-Noise Ratio). Relative power of the signal to the noise in a channel. SSPA (Solid-State Power Amplifier). A lower powered transmitter used for amplification of RF signals at a remote site BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary SVC. Switched Virtual Circuit. Synchronous. When characters or bits are transmitted at a fixed rate with the transmitting and receiving devices synchronized. TCP/IP. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access). Refers to a form of multiple access where a single carrier is time shared by many users. Signals from earth stations reaching the satellite consecutively are processed in time segments without overlapping. BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary Teleconference. A meeting involving at least one uplink and a number of downlinks at different locations. Telemetry. The use of telecommunications for automatically indicating or recording measurements at a distance from the measuring instrument. Terrestrial Interference. Interruptions in a satellite signal caused by high power land-based microwave links in the 4 GHz band. Tracking. Using earth-based equipment to follow a satellite’s position. Transfer Orbit. An intermediate elliptical orbit used to reach geosynchronous orbit, where the apogee is the same altitude as the final operating orbit. BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

VSAT Glossary : 

VSAT Glossary Transponder. The circuitry on a satellite that receives the uplink signal, amplifies it, then retransmits it as the downlink signal. TWTA. Traveling Wave Tube Amplifier. Satellite electronic components that provide power for the transponders (in watts). U/C (Up converter). Equipment that performs frequency conversion to a higher (RF) band. Uplink. Transmission of information from an earth station to a geostationary communications satellite. VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal). A small earth station, usually less than 2.4 meters, used for satellite communications. BROADCAST AND NETWORK SERVICE

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