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basic info about virus and its types


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A computer virus is a type of malware that, when executed , replicates by inserting copies of itself ( possibly modified) into other computer programs, data files, or the boot sector of the hard drive; when this replication succeeds , the affected areas are then said to be "infected ". Viruses often perform some type of harmful activity on infected hosts, such as stealing hard disk space or CPU time, accessing private information , corrupting data , displaying political or humorous messages on the user's screen, spamming their contacts, or logging their keystrokes. However, not all viruses carry a destructive payload or attempt to hide themselves—the defining characteristic of viruses is that they are self- replicating computer programs which install themselves without the user's consent . VIRUS


Virus writers use social engineering and exploit detailed knowledge of security vulnerabilities to gain access to their hosts' computing resources. The vast majority of viruses (over 99%) target systems running Microsoft Windows, employing a variety of mechanisms to infect new hosts , and often using complex anti-detection/stealth strategies to evade antivirus software. Motives for creating viruses can include seeking profit, desire to send a political message, personal amusement, to demonstrate that a vulnerability exists in software, for sabotage and denial of service, or simply because they wish to explore artificial life and evolutionary algorithms .


Computer viruses currently cause billions of dollars worth of economic damage each year , due to causing systems failure , wasting computer resources, corrupting data, increasing maintenance costs, etc. In response, free, open-source anti-virus tools have been developed, and a multi-billion dollar industry of anti-virus software vendors has cropped up, selling virus protection to Windows users. Unfortunately , no currently existing anti-virus software is able to catch all computer viruses (especially new ones); computer security researchers are actively searching for new ways to enable antivirus solutions to more effectively detect emerging viruses, before they have already become widely distributed.




A time bomb is a virus program that performs an activity on a particular date. TIME BOMB


LOGICAL BOMB A logical bomb is a destructive program that performs an activity when a certain action has occurred .


WORM A worm is also a destructive program that fills a computer system with self-replicating information, clogging the system so that its operations are slowed down or stopped .


BOOT SECTOR VIRUS A boot sector virus infects boot sector of computers. During system boot, boot sector virus is loaded into main memory and destroys data stored in hard disk.


TROJAN HORSE Trojan Horse is a destructive program. It usually pretends as computer games or application software. If executed, computer system will be damaged.


ANTI - VIRUS Antivirus or anti-virus software (usually written as the abbreviation AV) is software used to prevent, detect and remove malware (of all descriptions), such as: computer viruses, malicious BHOs, hijackers, ransomware , keyloggers , backdoors, rootkits, trojan horses, worms, malicious LSPs, dialers, fraudtools , adware and spyware. Computer security, including protection from social engineering techniques, is commonly offered in products and services of antivirus software companies . This page discusses the software used for the prevention and removal of malware threats, rather than computer security implemented by software methods.




DATA BACKUP Backups have two distinct purposes. The primary purpose is to recover data after its loss, be it by data deletion or corruption. Data loss can be a common experience of computer users. A 2008 survey found that 66% of respondents had lost files on their home PC . The secondary purpose of backups is to recover data from an earlier time, according to a user-defined data retention policy, typically configured within a backup application for how long copies of data are required. Though backups popularly represent a simple form of disaster recovery, and should be part of a disaster recovery plan, by themselves, backups should not alone be considered disaster recovery . One reason for this is that not all backup systems or backup applications are able to reconstitute a computer system or other complex configurations such as a computer cluster, active directory servers, or a database server, by restoring only data from a backup.


In computing, a firewall is a software or hardware-based network security system that controls the incoming and outgoing network traffic by analyzing the data packets and determining whether they should be allowed through or not, based on a rule set. A firewall establishes a barrier between a trusted, secure internal network and another network (e.g., the Internet) that is not assumed to be secure and trusted . Many personal computer operating systems include software-based firewalls to protect against threats from the public Internet. Many routers that pass data between networks contain firewall components and, conversely, many firewalls can perform basic routing functions . FIREWALL


MALWARE Malware , short for malicious software , is software used to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain access to private computer systems. It can appear in the form of code , scripts , active content, and other software . 'Malware' is a general term used to refer to a variety of forms of hostile or intrusive software .


Malware includes computer viruses , ransomware , worms , trojan horses , rootkits , keyloggers , dialers , spyware , adware , malicious BHOs , rogue security software and other malicious programs; the majority of active malware threats are usually worms or trojans rather than viruses . In law , malware is sometimes known as a computer contaminant , as in the legal codes of several U.S. states . Malware is different from defective software, which is a legitimate software but contains harmful bugs that were not corrected before release. However, some malware is disguised as genuine software, and may come from an official company website in the form of a useful or attractive program which has the harmful malware embedded in it along with additional tracking software that gathers marketing statistics .


SPY WARE Spyware is software that aids in gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge and that may send such information to another entity without the consumer's consent, or that asserts control over a computer without the consumer's knowledge. "Spyware" is mostly classified into four types: system monitors, trojans , adware, and tracking cookies . Spyware is mostly used for the purposes such as; tracking and storing internet users' movements on the web; serving up pop-up ads to internet users.


ANTI - SPYWARE Many programmers and some commercial firms have released products dedicated to remove or block spyware. Anti-spyware programs can combat spyware in two ways: They can provide real-time protection in a manner similar to that of anti-virus protection: they scan all incoming network data for spyware and blocks any threats it detects. Anti-spyware software programs can be used solely for detection and removal of spyware software that has already been installed onto the computer. This kind of anti-spyware can often be set to scan on a regular schedule.


ELECTRONIC SPAM Electronic Spamming is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages ( spam ), especially advertising, indiscriminately. The term spam refers to unsolicated commercial advertisments distributed online. Most spam comes to people via email, but spam can also be found in online chat rooms and message boards. Spam consumes a tremendous amount of network bandwidth on the Internet. More importantly, it can consume too much of peoples' personal time if not managed properly.


The most effective strategy for eliminating spam is to ignore it. Spam's continued existence depends on maintaining an audience of people who respond to the messages. Some Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and corporations have invested in spam-filtering products and services, but this technology is not very mature yet. Some people also label as spam any form of Internet advertising such as pop up browser windows. In contrast to true spam, though, these forms of advertising are provided to people in the act of visiting Web sites and are merely a "cost of doing business" to help support those sites' products and services.


HACKERS A hacker is a person intensely interested in the arcane and recondite workings of any computer operating system. Most often, hackers are programmers. As such, hackers obtain advanced knowledge of operating systems and programming languages. They may know of holes within systems and the reasons for such holes. Hackers constantly seek further knowledge, freely share what they have discovered, and never, ever intentionally damage data .


CRACKERS "A cracker is a person who breaks into or otherwise violates the system integrity of remote machines, with malicious intent. Crackers, having gained unauthorized access, destroy vital data, deny legitimate users service, or basically cause problems for their targets. Crackers can easily be identified because their actions are malicious."





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