BEE KEEPING : BEE KEEPING BYSUBBALAKSHMI Slide 2: Most of the bees’ work is done in spring and summer Slide 3: They take pollen and nectar to the hive Slide 4: The bee hive is built with beeswax Slide 5: The bees store honey in the hive.It also
holds the tiny eggs. Slide 6: Some worker bees build the hive, others keep it
clean, still others guard it. Slide 7: The queen bee is biggest bee in the hive. Slide 8: A bee pollinates a flower. History : History Honey bees (or honeybees) are a subset of bees, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests out of wax. Honey bees are the only extant members of the tribe Apini, all in the genus Apis. Currently, there are only seven recognized species of honey bee with a total of 44 subspecies (Engel, 1999) though historically, anywhere from six to eleven species have been recognized. Honey bees represent only a small fraction of the approximately 20,000 known species of bees. Some other types of related bees produce and store honey, but only members of the genus Apis are true honey bees. Slide 11: The Honey bees as a group appear to have their center of origin in South and Southeast Asia (including the Philippines), as all but one of the extant species are native to that region, notably the most plesiomorphic living species (Apis florea and A. andreniformis). The first Apis bees appear in the fossil record at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, in European deposits dating about 35 million years ago. The origin of these prehistoric honey bees does not necessarily indicate that Europe is where the genus originated, only that it occurred there at that time. There are few known fossil deposits in the suspected region of honeybee origin, and fewer still have been thoroughly studied. Beekeeping : Beekeeping Two species of honey bee, A. mellifera and A. cerana, are often maintained, fed, and transported by beekeepers. Modern hives also enable beekeepers to transport bees, moving from field to field as the crop needs pollinating and allowing the beekeeper to charge for the pollination services they provide, revising the historical role of the self-employed beekeeper, and favoring large-scale commercial operations. The Colonies of Honey Bee : The Colonies of Honey Bee The Colonies are established not by solitary queens, as in most bees, but by groups known as "swarms", which consist of a mated queen and a large contingent of worker bees. This group moves en masse to a nest site that has been scouted by worker bees beforehand. Once they arrive, they immediately construct a new wax comb and begin to raise new worker brood. Life cycle : Life cycle A Queen bee. Yellow dot is added to aid beekeeper. Honey bee eggs shown in cut open wax cells Life cycle : Life cycle Emergence of a black bee (Apis mellifera mellifera). . Eggs and larvae Life cycle : Life cycle Foragers coming in loaded with pollen on the hive landing board A colony generally contains one queen bee, a fertile female; seasonally up to a few thousand drone bees or fertile males; and a large seasonally variable population of sterile female worker bees. Details vary among the different species of honey bees, but common features include:
Eggs are laid singly in a cell in a wax honeycomb, produced and shaped by the worker bees. Larvae are initially fed with royal jelly produced by worker bees, later switching to honey and pollen. Life cycle : Life cycle The exception is a larva fed solely on royal jelly, which will develop into a queen bee. The larva undergoes several moltings before spinning a cocoon within the cell, and pupating. Drones hatch from unfertilized eggs, females (Queens and worker bees) hatch from fertilized eggs. The queen actually can choose to fertilize the egg she is laying, usually depending on what cell she is laying in.
Young worker bees clean the hive and feed the larvae. When their royal jelly producing glands begin to atrophy, they begin building comb cells. They progress to other within-colony tasks as they become older, such as receiving nectar and pollen from foragers, and guarding the hive. Later still, a worker takes her first orientation flights and finally leaves the hive and typically spends the remainder of her life as a forager.
Worker bees cooperate to find food and use a pattern of "dancing" (known as the bee dance or waggle dance) to communicate information regarding resources with each other; this dance varies from species to species, and larvae Pollination : Pollination The Species of Apis are generalist floral visitors, and will pollinate a large variety of plants, but by no means all plants. Of all the honey bee species, only Apis mellifera has been used extensively for commercial pollination of crops and other plants. The value of these pollination services is commonly measured in the billions of dollars. Beeswax : Beeswax Worker bees of a certain age will secrete beeswax from a series of glands on their abdomens. They use the wax to form the walls and caps of the comb. As with honey, beeswax is gathered for various purposes. Honey : Honey An Honey is the complex substance made when the nectar and sweet deposits from plants and trees are gathered, modified and stored in the honeycomb by honey bees as a food source for the colony. All living species of Apis have had their honey gathered by indigenous peoples for consumption, though for commercial purposes only Apis mellifera and Apis cerana have been exploited to any degree. Honey is sometimes also gathered by humans from the nests of various stingless bees. Defense : Defense An All honey bees live in colonies where the worker bees will sting intruders as a form of defense, and alarmed bees will release a pheromone that stimulates the attack response in other bees. The different species of honey bees are distinguished from all other bee species (and virtually all other Hymenoptera) by the possession of small barbs on the stinger, but these barbs are found only in the worker bees. The sting and associated venom sac are also modified so as to pull free of the body once lodged (autotomy), and the sting apparatus has its own musculature and ganglion which allow it to keep delivering venom once detached. The worker bee dies after the sting is torn out of its body. Propolis : Propolis Elephants Propolis (or bee glue) is created from resins, balsams and tree saps. Those species of honey bees which nest in tree cavities use propolis to seal cracks in the hive. Dwarf honey bees use propolis to defend against ants by coating the branch from which their nest is suspended to create a sticky moat. Propolis is consumed as a health supplement in various ways and also used in some cosmetics. of mothers, daughters, sisters, and aunts. These groups are led by the eldest female, or matriarch. Adult males, on the other hand, live mostly solitary lives. Communication : Communication The Honey bees are known to communicate through many different chemicals and odors, as is common in insects, but also using specific behaviors that convey information about the quality and type of resources in the environment, and where these resources are located. The details of the signaling being used vary from species to species; for example, the two smallest species, Apis andreniformis and Apis florea, dance on the upper surface of the comb, which is horizontal (not vertical, as in other species), and worker bees orient the dance in the actual compass direction of the resource to which they are recruiting. Slide 24: Honey Bee Rohan H S,4th std,KVSchoolMysore The different castes of Bees are: Queen Bee : The different castes of Bees are: Queen Bee Drones : Drones They collect honey. : They collect honey. Worker Bees Structure of Honey Bee : Structure of Honey Bee There are many different species of bees. The two most common are : There are many different species of bees. The two most common are Bubble Bee Honey Bee What is honey? : What is honey? Honey is a thick liquid produced by certain types of bees from the nectar of flowers. honeybees refine and concentrate nectar to make honey : honeybees refine and concentrate nectar to make honey They store honey in honey comb for future use. : They store honey in honey comb for future use. Humans collect honey from honey comb : Humans collect honey from honey comb Bee Stingsbees will sting, bite when they are active : Bee Stingsbees will sting, bite when they are active Honeybees are social insects. In the wild, they create elaborate nests called Bee hives. : Honeybees are social insects. In the wild, they create elaborate nests called Bee hives. Honey collection from Honey Bee comb : Honey collection from Honey Bee comb Properties of Honey : Properties of Honey It never decays
It has great medical usage. Honey Bees are good pollinators : Honey Bees are good pollinators Collapse of Honey Bees : Collapse of Honey Bees Due to excess use of pesticides.
Diseases caused to the worker Bees. Slide 40: Thank YOu