Chocolate : …there is no substitute! C hocolate PowerPoint Presentation: A Brief Account of the History of Chocolate We tend to think of chocolate as a sweet candy created during modern times. But actually, chocolate dates back to the ancient peoples of Mesoamerica who drank chocolate as a bitter beverage. For these people, chocolate wasn’t just a favorite food—it also played an important role in their religious and social lives. PowerPoint Presentation: Cocoa beans are the product of the cacao tree. The origin of the cacao tree is in dispute. Some say it originated in the Amazon basin of Brazil, others place it in the Orinoco Valley of Venezuela, while still others contend that it is native to Central America. Ripening pods on the cacao (kah KOW) tree contain the seeds from which chocolate is made. PowerPoint Presentation: The ancient Maya grew cacao and made it into a beverage. The first people clearly known to have discovered the secret of cacao were the Classic Period Maya (250-900 C.E. [A.D.]). The Maya and their ancestors in Mesoamerica took the tree from the rainforest and grew it in their own backyards, where they harvested, fermented, roasted, and ground the seeds into a paste. PowerPoint Presentation: When mixed with water, chili peppers, cornmeal, and other ingredients, this paste made a frothy, spicy chocolate drink. PowerPoint Presentation: The Aztecs adopted cacao. By 1400, the Aztec empire dominated a sizeable segment of Mesoamerica. The Aztecs traded with Maya and other peoples for cacao and often required that citizens and conquered peoples pay their tribute in cacao seeds—a form of Aztec money. Like the earlier Maya, the Aztecs also consumed their bitter chocolate drink seasoned with spices—sugar was an agricultural product unavailable to the ancient Mesoamericans. PowerPoint Presentation: Drinking chocolate was an important part of Maya and Aztec life. Many people in Classic Period Maya society could drink chocolate at least on occasion, although it was a particularly favored beverage for royalty. But in Aztec society, primarily rulers, priests, decorated soldiers, and honored merchants could partake of this sacred brew. PowerPoint Presentation: Chocolate also played a special role in both Maya and Aztec royal and religious events. Priests presented cacao seeds as offerings to the gods and served chocolate drinks during sacred ceremonies. PowerPoint Presentation: Chocolate goes to Europe PowerPoint Presentation: Until the 1500s, no one in Europe knew anything at all about the delicious drink that would later become a huge hit worldwide. Spain’s search for a route to riches led its explorers to the Americas and introduced them to chocolate’s delicious flavor. Eventually, the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs made it possible to import chocolate back home, where it quickly became a court favorite. And within 100 years, the love of chocolate spread throughout the rest of Europe. PowerPoint Presentation: Contemporary Chocolate For hundreds of years, the chocolate-making process remained relatively unaltered. But by the mid 1700s, the blossoming Industrial Revolution saw the emergence of innovations that changed the future of chocolate. A steady stream of new inventions and advertising helped set the stage for solid chocolate candy to become the globally favored sweet it is today. PowerPoint Presentation: For 90% of its history, from about 1500 B.C. when it was made as a drink by the Olmecs in Mesoamerica, chocolate was only a beverage. Solid chocolate was not created until 1847. Then, Arthur Fry, the great-grandson of the founder of Joseph Fry & Company, then managing the family business, discovered a way to mix some of the cocoa butter back into the “ Dutched ” chocolate (cocoa powder). PowerPoint Presentation: He added sugar, creating a paste that he molded into the world’s first chocolate bar, which was called chocolate for eating to distinguish it from drinking chocolate. It was rough and gritty, not the smooth, velvety bar we enjoy today. PowerPoint Presentation: It took another 32 years for Rodolphe Lindt to invent the conching machine to improve the texture of chocolate. PowerPoint Presentation: Chocolate is mostly machine-made, not handmade. Converting cacao seeds into chocolate has now evolved into a complex and time-consuming mechanized process that includes several steps. PowerPoint Presentation: Types of Chocolates Milk Chocolate A combination of chocolate liquor, cocoa butter, sugar and milk or cream. Milk chocolate must contain at least 10% chocolate liquor and at least 12% total milk ingredients. Sweet Chocolate A combination of chocolate liquor, cocoa butter and sugar, but contains at least 15% chocolate liquor. PowerPoint Presentation: Semisweet Or Bittersweet Chocolate A combination of chocolate liquor, cocoa butter and sugar, but contains at least 35% chocolate liquor. Sweet chocolate and semisweet chocolate are often called dark chocolate. Chocolate, Unsweetened Chocolate, Or Baking Chocolate Chocolate or chocolate liquor is produced by grinding cocoa beans smooth, liquid state. This chocolate can be sold as unsweetened chocolate or baking chocolate or used to make other chocolate types such as milk chocolate, sweet chocolate, or semisweet chocolate. PowerPoint Presentation: White Chocolate Made from the same ingredients as milk chocolate (cocoa butter, milk, sugar) but without the nonfat cocoa solids. In 2002, FDA established a standard of identity for white chocolate. White chocolate must contain at least 20% cocoa butter and 14% total milk ingredients. PowerPoint Presentation: Chocolate trivia For many years, chocolate was believed to be an aphrodisiac. Chocolate was originally only used as a beverage, and only served to men (see the reason why above). Eating chocolate began in 1674 when the first chocolate cake was baked. PowerPoint Presentation: Americans eat chocolate at the rate of 11.7 pounds per person a year. 71% of American chocolate lovers like milk chocolate the best. People in Denmark eat the most chocolate - about 30 pounds per person a year. Most women like to get chocolate instead of flowers on Valentine's Day - especially women over the age of 50. PowerPoint Presentation: The melting point of cocoa butter is just below human body temperature - this is why chocolate melts in your mouth. Recent reports have found that chocolate may help lower your cholesterol level and reduce the risk of heart disease. One ounce of milk chocolate contains about the same amount of caffeine as one cup of decaffeinated coffee. PowerPoint Presentation: Dental studies report that eating chocolate does not cause cavities. Repeated studies have shown that chocolate does not cause acne - or make it worse. Chocolate is poisonous for your pets. Eating chocolate makes you happy because it contains phenylephylamine - the same hormone the brain triggers when you fall in love. PowerPoint Presentation: Monkeys were the first to find the cacao plant edible and delectable, not man. The monkeys would eat the pulp and spit out the beans. PowerPoint Presentation: Chocolate bars PowerPoint Presentation: Although chocolate bars and candy bars had their beginnings in the 19th century, it was in the early-20th century that this confectionery commercial venture grew most rapidly. The first wrapped chocolate bar, which is still being produced, was the Hershey bar, produced by The Hershey Company in 1900. A number of the bars developed in that era still exist in relatively unchanged form. In the U.S., most candy bars started out priced at ten cents, down to five cents during the Great Depression, and back to ten after World War II. This price remained stable until the late 1960s. PowerPoint Presentation: Unusual use of chocolate PowerPoint Presentation: Travelin’ man Who was the first European known to have encountered cacao? A) Christopher Columbus B) Hernando Cortez C) John Cabot D) Ponce de Leon PowerPoint Presentation: Columbus seized cacao beans along with other cargo from a native dugout in 1502 off the Honduran coast. He wasn’t very impressed, however. PowerPoint Presentation: 2. Ek Chuah day The Mayan people of Central America and Mexico held a festival each April for their cacao god, Ek Chuah. Along with animal sacrifices, how did they celebrate the occasion? A) By bathing in cocoa B) By dancing on a mountain-top C) By exchanging gifts D) By performing skits enacting the creation of cacao PowerPoint Presentation: By exchanging gifts PowerPoint Presentation: 3. Remix When Spanish monks adapted the standard Aztec chocolate drink recipe for local tast, they added several ingredients — cinnamon, nutmeg, sugar — and subtracted a few, including which of the following? A) Chicken blood B) Chili pepper C) Llama butter D) Rum PowerPoint Presentation: Chocolate was a luxury drink among the Aztecs. In addition to the pepper, the recipe called for flowers, vanilla and wild honey. PowerPoint Presentation: 4. Dog’s breakfast Chocolate makes a poor food for the family dog. Why? A) Chemical reactions produce an unpleasant “chocolate dog” smell B) It causes a euphoric “high” that may make the dog hard to manage C) It contains substances that are toxic for dogs D) Long-term use puts dogs at risk of canine obesity PowerPoint Presentation: Most pet animals, not just dogs, have toxicity reactions to the theobromine and caffeine in chocolate. An amount of baker’s chocolate weighing less than one per cent of the animal’s body weight could produce severe symptoms. PowerPoint Presentation: 5. The three chocolatiers Three English chocolate pioneers were John Cadbury, Joseph Fry and Henry Rowntree. In addition to their work, what did all three men have in common? A) They had undertaken military service in Africa B) They had all been servants of the Duke of Kent C) They personally disliked chocolate D) They were Quakers PowerPoint Presentation: Quakers in England had relatively few career options in 19th-century England, but many excelled in business. PowerPoint Presentation: 6. Choc-a-day, doc away Studies have shown that chocolate may help ward off heart disease. What type of chocolate is thought to be most effective for this? A) Dark chocolate B) Liqueur-filled chocolate C) Milk chocolate D) White chocolate PowerPoint Presentation: The most significant heart-healthy component of chocolate is a group of compounds called flavonoids, which are known to have multiple beneficial effects. Dark chocolate is much richer in flavonoids than are the other types. PowerPoint Presentation: …and now, Bon appétit!