ppt-food allergy

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STEPHY MARIA SEBASTIAN S1 FST

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Food Allergies... what you need to know Millions of people have food allergies that can range from mild to life-threatening .

FOOD ALLERGY...:

FOOD ALLERGY ... Food allergy is the appearance of some unpleasant symptoms in a sensitive (allergic) person after taking a particular food. The same food ordinary causes no such symptoms in the vast majority of people who take it. Allergic reactions to foods occur in perphaps 2-5 % of infants and children and 1-2% of adults.

Conditions caused by food allergies are classified into 3 groups according to the mechanism of the allergic response: :

Conditions caused by food allergies are classified into 3 groups according to the mechanism of the allergic response: 1. IgE-mediated 2. IgE and non-IgE-mediated (mixed) 3. Non-IgE mediated

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Adverse Reactions to Food

Reasons for food allergy... :

R easons for food allergy ... The majority of “true” allergic reactions to foods are caused by the production of immunoglobin (Ig E),the allergic antibody. Subsequent ingestion of a food in the presence of specific Ig E to the foods, triggers the release of allergiec chemicals such as histamine. These allergic reactions produce a wide spectrum of symptoms ranging from itching and hives, to swallowing,respiratory or abdominal complaints, or to a profound drop in blood pressure.

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Many adverse reactions to foods are non-immune mediated such as lactose intolerance in which individuals lack an adequate amount of enzyme to digest cow’s milk resulting in recurrent abdominal discomfort and diarrhea. Another example of a non-allergic food reaction is sensitivity to monosodium glutamate (MSG,a food additive) resulting in headache,warmth and sweating .

Signs and symptoms...:

S igns and symptoms ... symptoms of a true food allergy usually involve the skin and intestines and typically begin just after eating and not longer than 2 hours following ingestion of the particular food. Common symptoms include: Hives, swelling, itching, or eczema Nausea and vomiting, stomach cramps, indigestion, or diarrhea Swelling of the eyelids, face, lips, tongue, throat, or other parts of the body (called angioedema) A metallic taste in the mouth

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Swelling of the throat and difficulty swallowing Difficulty breathing Rapid pulse Blue color to the skin and nails Wheezing, nasal congestion, or trouble breathing Lightheadedness, dizziness, or fainting

The big eight food allergens...:

The big eight food allergens ... Peanuts Tree nuts (eg.walnuts) Fish Shell fish (crustacea and mollusks) Eggs Milk Wheat soy

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No No No 20% 60-70% 80% Outgrown? 3.7% 6% Other 2.0% 0.1% Shellfish 0.4% 0.1% Fish 0.5% 0.2% Tree nut 0.6% 0.8% Peanut 0.2% 1.3% Egg 0.3% 2.5% Milk Adults Young children Food Food allergy prevalence Increase in prevalence over past 20 years 4% of total US population: Infants > adults

causes...:

causes... One of the most common food allergies is sensitivity to peanuts. common Tree nuts allergens are pecans,pistachios,pine nuts & walnuts. Egg allergies affect about one in fifty children but are frequently outgrown by children when they reach age five. Typically the sensitivity is to proteins in the white, rather than the yolk. Milk from cows, goats or sheep, is another common food allergen.

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Other foods containing allergenic proteins include soy, wheat, fish, shellfish, fruits, vegetables, spices, synthetic and natural colors, and chemical additives. A very small portion of children with a milk allergy, roughly ten percent, will have a reaction to beef. Beef contains a small amount of protein that is present in cow's milk.

Diagnosis... :

Diagnosis... There are three common types of allergy testing: skin prick test, blood test, food challenges. An allergist can perform these tests, and they can also go into further depth depending on the results. Skin testing on arm is a common way for detecting an allergy, however, it is not as effective as other tests.

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For skin prick tests, a tiny board with protruding needles is used. The allergens are placed either on the board or directly on the skin. The board is then placed on the skin, in order to puncture the skin and for the allergens to enter the body. If a hive appears, the person will be considered positive for the allergy. This test only works for IgE antibodies. Allergic reactions caused by other antibodies cannot be detected through skin prick tests.

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Blood testing is another way to test for allergies; however, it possess the same disadvantage and only detects IgE allergens and does not work for every possible allergen. RAST , Radio Allergo Sorbent Test, is used to detect IgE antibodies present to a certain allergen. One advantage of this test is that it can test many allergens at one time.

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Food challenges test for allergens other than those caused by IgE allergens. The allergen is given to the person in the form of a pill, so the person can ingest the allergen directly. The person is watched for signs and symptoms. The problem with food challenges is that they must be performed in the hospital under careful watch, due to the possibility of anaphylaxis . ( "a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death“)

Prevention... :

Prevention... In order to avoid an allergic reaction, a strict diet can be followed. When avoiding certain foods in order to lessen the risk of reaction, it can be hard to maintain the proper amounts of nutrients. Some allergens are also common sources of vitamins and minerals, as well as macronutrients such as fat and protein; healthcare providers will often suggest alternate food sources of essential vitamins and minerals which are less allergenic.

Treatment... :

Treatment... Avoid foods that have been identified as allergens. For people who are extremely sensitive, this may involve the total avoidance of any exposure with the allergen, including touching or inhaling the problematic food as well as touching any surfaces that may have come into contact with it. If the food is accidentally ingested and a systemic reaction (anaphylaxis) occurs, then epinephrine should be used. There are treatments for an allergic reaction. Among the first time the reaction occurs, it is most beneficial to take the person to the emergency room, where proper action may be taken. Other treatments include: antihistamines and steroids.

Epinephrine :

Epinephrine Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a common medication used to treat allergic reactions. Epinephrine reverses the allergic reaction by improving blood circulation. EpiPens are portable epinephrine-dispensing devices which can be used to alleviate the symptoms of severe, acute allergies.

Antihistamines :

Antihistamines Antihistamines are also used to treat allergic reactions. Antihistamines block the action of histamine, which causes blood vessels to dilate. Histamine also causes itchiness by acting on sensory nerve terminals. The most common antihistamine given for food allergies is diphenhydramine , also known as benedryl .

Steroids :

Steroids Steroids are used to calm down the immune system cells that are attacked by the chemicals released during an allergic reaction. It can be taken in the form of nasal spray, orally or through injection. long time is usually needed for these to take effect. (e.g., Prednisone )

Conclusion...:

Conclusion... Food allergy is common in infants and children and also present in adults as well. Careful evaluation by an allergist followed by identification of the offending food and avoidance, as well as an emergency plan can prevent dangerous reactions from occurring and allow both the child and adult to lead a normal life.

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Thank you...

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