Methods for WAS*IS

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On the fly presentation created for the 2011 WAS*IS Societal Impacts Program Summer Workshop.

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Action ResearcH:

Action ResearcH Co-Constructing Meaningfulness through Language & Social Interaction August 8, 2011 Stephanie Jo Kent, WAS*IS*WILLBE 1

Steph Jo’s methodological synthesis:

Steph Jo’s methodological synthesis Ethnography of Communication Critical Discourse Analysis Action Learning August 8, 2011 Stephanie Jo Kent, WAS*IS*WILLBE 2

Ethnography of Communication:

Ethnography of Communication grounded in the social life of language c ommunication as a culturally distinctive activity locally patterned practices of communication situated uses of language the way verbal and nonverbal signs create and reveal social codes of identity, relationships, emotions, place, and communication itself w ays of speaking basic units: communication event, communication act, communication situation, and speech community the means and meanings of communication in particular socio-cultural lives August 8, 2011 Stephanie Jo Kent, WAS*IS*WILLBE 3

Dell Hymes (1962) :

Dell Hymes (1962) S P E A K I N G August 8, 2011 Stephanie Jo Kent, WAS*IS*WILLBE 4 = setting, scene = participants = ends (desired, actual) = acts (speech act theory – J.L. Austin “How To Do Things With Words” 1955/1962) = key (tone, affect) = instrument = norms (habit = normalcy; usual – default moral standard) norms of interaction (what one should do) norms of interpretation (what that doing should mean ) = genre

Steps::

Steps: identify a unit of communication practice for purposes of analysis generate data about that practice through procedures of participant observation and interviewing analyze instances of the practice through the SPEAKING components. For any one practice, some components may prove more fruitful for analysis than others, and thus the use of the theoretical framework itself becomes an object of reflection during the ethnographic study . Carbaugh , Donal . (2008). Ethnography of Communication. Wolfgang Donsback , Ed. International Encyclopedia of Communication. Blackwell Publishing . August 8, 2011 Stephanie Jo Kent, WAS*IS*WILLBE 5

tendencies/weaknesses:

tendencies/weaknesses focus on homogenous communities or cultures (intragroup) descriptive and comparative (not critical) p ower dynamics minimized – an afterthought if present at all August 8, 2011 Stephanie Jo Kent, WAS*IS*WILLBE 6

CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS:

CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS “an interdisciplinary epistemological and methodological approach that seeks to identify (and sometimes correct) the effects of the strategic deployment of language” ( Sibii 2011) Norman Fairclough (1992): three-dimensional theory of critical discourse, in which every utterance is simultaneously an act, an instance of discursive practice, and an instance of social practice. Jan Blommaert (2006): discourse is language in use – what people do with language what language does to people August 8, 2011 Stephanie Jo Kent, WAS*IS*WILLBE 7

Action Research (direct from Wikipedia):

Action Research ( direct from Wikipedia ) Kurt Lewin’s Systems Model: unfreezing – change – refreezing (involves agency) Paulo Freire , Participatory Action Research – social justice motivated (agency potential of illiterate people) Chris Argyris – action science the study of how human beings design their actions in difficult situations Single loop learning = w hen actions are designed to achieve the intended consequences and to suppress conflict about the governing variables Double loop learning = when actions are taken… to openly inquire about conflict and to possibly transform the governing variables August 8, 2011 Stephanie Jo Kent, WAS*IS*WILLBE 8

STormchasing:

STormchasing Stages of Group Development ( Tuckman 1965) Forming Storming Norming Performing Hanging with Kindred Spirits Thank you WAS*IS! August 8, 2011 Stephanie Jo Kent, WAS*IS*WILLBE 9

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