Infectious Diseases

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Group 8 Stephanie Louis Christopher Assi

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Infectious Diseases: 

Infectious Diseases By Stephanie Louis & Christopher Assi

Infectious Diseases …: 

Infectious Diseases … are caused by microorganisms or other agents, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. enter the body of an organism, proliferate, and cause infection. can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another.

Causes of Infectious Diseases:: 

Causes of Infectious Diseases: Bacteria: These organisms are responsible for illnesses such as strep throat, urinary tract infections, and tuberculosis . Viruses: Smaller than bacteria, viruses cause a multitude of diseases ranging from the common cold to AIDS . Fungi. Many skin diseases, such as ringworm and athlete's foot, are caused by fungi. Other types of fungi can infect your lungs or nervous system . Parasites. Malaria is caused by a tiny parasite that is transmitted by a mosquito bite. Other parasites may be transmitted to humans from animal feces .

Most Common Infectious Diseases: 

Most Common Infectious Diseases

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Pathogen Estimated number of illnesses Norovirus 5,461,731 Salmonella , nontyphoidal 1,027,561 Clostridium perfringens 965,958 Campylobacter spp . 845,024 Staphylococcus aureus 241,148 Table 1. Top five pathogens contributing to domestically acquired foodborne illnesses

PowerPoint Presentation: 

STI rates per year in the US http://www.ashastd.org/std-sti/std-statistics.html

Transmission: 

Transmission Contaminated food and water. Airborne transmission Direct contact Vectors and Fomites Blood

Prevention: 

Prevention Prophylaxis (Vaccinations) Hygiene/Hand-washing

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Infectious diseases have a range of signs and symptoms. General signs and symptoms of infectious diseases include:

Vaccinations were first introduced in 1796 by …: 

V accinations were first introduced in 1796 by … Various accomplished scientists have made strides toward understanding and preventing the spread of infectious diseases; and have developed treatments including antibiotics and vaccines.

Edward Jenner …: 

Edward Jenner …

Jenner discovered and administered the first smallpox vaccination. He harvested and injected cowpox virus as an immunizing agent after noticing that milkmaids that had contracted cowpox, didn’t catch smallpox.: 

Jenner discovered and administered the first smallpox vaccination. He harvested and injected cowpox virus as an immunizing agent after noticing that milkmaids that had contracted cowpox, didn’t catch smallpox.

Following Jenners’ Vaccination …: 

Following Jenners ’ Vaccination …

Ignaz Semmelweiss… : 

Ignaz Semmelweiss …

fought the spread of infection.: 

fought the spread of infection. Known as “The Savior of Mothers”, Semmelweiss first discovered the importance of physician’s hand-washing prior before child-birthing, to prevent contamination from one patient to another.

PowerPoint Presentation: 

In 1864, the Germ Theory was proven true by a man named …

Louis Pasteur: 

Louis Pasteur

Pasteur was able to prove that diseases may be caused by infectious agents or “germs”. He discovered that bacteria could be removed by first boiling and then cooling liquids. This practice is currently called…: 

Pasteur was able to prove that diseases may be caused by infectious agents or “germs”. He discovered that bacteria could be removed by first boiling and then cooling liquids. This practice is currently called… Pasteur’s pasteurization technique was initially used to reduce the number of pathogens in foods such as wine, beer, and milk. He proved that bacteria came from the environment; instead of the commonly held belief - spontaneous generation. He extended the Germ Theory to explain the causes of many diseases - including anthrax, cholera, tuberculosis, and smallpox. Pasteurization led to the advancement of vaccinations. PASTEURIZATION

Building upon Pasteur’s findings… : 

Building upon Pasteur’s findings…

The “Father of Antiseptic Surgery”: 

Joseph Lister covered compound fracture wounds with lint soaked in carbolic acid. Following implementing this practice, patient death by gangrene dropped dramatically. He later implemented pre-operative hand-washing and instrument sterilization. Lister developed a phenol (antiseptic) spray; which he administered into the air surrounding the operating area, to reduce infection from environmental pathogens. The post-operative death rate of his patients fell from nearly 46% to 15%. The “Father of Antiseptic Surgery”

And Alexander Fleming …: 

And Alexander Fleming … In 1928, accidentally discovered a breakthrough in medicine.

PowerPoint Presentation: 

While working with the influenza virus, Fleming observed that mold had accidently developed on a bacterial culture plate and had formed a bacteria-free circle around a bacterial colony. He discovered that a mold culture prevented the growth of Staphylococci. The active substance in the mold has now come to be known as…

Penicillin: 

Penicillin … which has come to be recognized as one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics the world has known to date!!!

Tests & Diagnosis: 

Tests & Diagnosis Blood tests. Urine and stool tests. Throat swabs. CT Scan Biopsy Spinal tap (lumbar puncture).

Treatment & Drugs: 

Treatment & Drugs Antivirals Drugs have been developed to treat some, but not all, viruses. Examples include the viruses that cause: AIDS Herpes Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Influenza Antibiotics Penicillin ( Permapen ) Amoxicillin ( Moxatag ) Ciprofloxacin ( Cipro ) Azithromycin (Zithromax) Doxycycline ( Doryx , Oracea ) Antifungals Anti-parasitic drugs

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Global distribution of deaths among children under age 5, by cause, 2010 World Health Organization, The Global Burden of Disease 2004 Update, Geneva: 2009

References: 

References http://www.who.int/topics/infectious_diseases/en/ http://www.cdc.gov/oid/ http :// www.mayoclinic.com/health/infectious-diseases/DS01145 http:// www.smartglobalhealth.org/issues/entry/infectious-diseases http:// www.abpischools.org.uk/page/modules/infectiousdiseases_timeline/index.cfm?age=Age%20Range%2014-16&subject=History http:// www.childinfo.org/malnutrition.html http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/broughttolife/people/josephlister.aspx http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1945/fleming-bio.html http://www.ashastd.org/std-sti/std-statistics.html