# Application of Logistic Regression using R Programming

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APPLICATION OF LOGISTIC REGRESSION USING R PROGRAMMING Experience of Statswork.com Research Planing | Data Collection | Semantic Annotation | Consumer & Retail Analytics | Econometrics Copyright © 2019 Statswork. All rights reserved Tags: Statswork | Logistic regression | R programming | Python Expert | Programmers | Statistical Data Analysis | Data Analysis Services | Data Mining Services | Data Collection | Big Data Analytics | Statistics Services Research paper OCT 10, 2019

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Research Planing | Data Collection | Semantic Annotation | Consumer & Retail Analytics | Econometrics Copyright © 2019 Statswork. All rights reserved Logistic regression is a type of predictive model when the target variable is a categorical variable with two categories. Logistic regression is used for the prediction of the probability of occurrence of an event by fitting the data into a logistic curve. It makes use of predictor variables either numerical or categorical. LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSIS 01 02 03

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Research Planing | Data Collection | Semantic Annotation | Consumer & Retail Analytics | Econometrics Copyright © 2019 Statswork. All rights reserved USES OF LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSIS Predicts the presence or absence of a characteristic or outcome based on values of a set of predictor variables. Suitable for models where dependent variable is dichotomous. Estimates odds ratios (OD) for each of the independent variables in the model. Predicts the probability of occurrence of an event by fitting data to a logit function. 01 02 03 04

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Research Planing | Data Collection | Semantic Annotation | Consumer & Retail Analytics | Econometrics Copyright © 2019 Statswork. All rights reserved EXAMPLE OF LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSIS Prediction among patient having high blood pressure (BP) or not along with other observations such as Age, Smoking habits, Weight, or Body mass Index BMI, blood cholesterol levels, Diastolic and Systolic BP value, Gender, etc. Table 1. Blood Pressure Range BP Systolic Diastolic Low Normal Borderline High <90 <60 90-130 60-180 131-140 81-90 140 >90 Source: Adapted from Nimmala et al., 2018 Question 1

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Research Planing | Data Collection | Semantic Annotation | Consumer & Retail Analytics | Econometrics Copyright © 2019 Statswork. All rights reserved PROCEDURES INVOLVED IN CONDUCTING LOGISTIC REGRESSION ANALYSIS Select the response or dependent variable (patients having high BP or not). Other variables are considered as explanatory or independent variables. Dependent variable needs to be coded as 0 and 1. Explanatory variable can be a continuous variable or ordinal variable. Outcome is predicted by applying logistic regression model. 01 02 03 04 05 RESULT Outcome is predicted by applying logistic regression model.

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Research Planing | Data Collection | Semantic Annotation | Consumer & Retail Analytics | Econometrics Copyright © 2019 Statswork. All rights reserved Question 2 Prediction among child having high blood patient having high blood pressure (BP) or not along with other observations such as Age, Smoking habits, Weight, or Body mass Index BMI, blood cholesterol levels, Diastolic and Systolic BP value, Gender, etc. Table 1. Prediction model for childhood high blood pressure Adapted from Hamoen et al., 2018

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Research Planing | Data Collection | Semantic Annotation | Consumer & Retail Analytics | Econometrics Copyright © 2019 Statswork. All rights reserved LOGISTIC REGRESSION IMPLEMENTATION USING LOGIT FUNCTION AND R PROGRAMMING

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Research Planing | Data Collection | Semantic Annotation | Consumer & Retail Analytics | Econometrics Copyright © 2019 Statswork. All rights reserved LOGISTIC REGRESSION IMPLEMENTATION USING LOGIT FUNCTION  Logistic regression generates the coefficients of a formula to predict a logit transformation of the probability of the presence of the characteristic of interest: Logit (p) = b0 + b1X1 + b2X2 +…+ bkXk where p- probability of the presence of the characteristic of interest. The logit transformation is defined as the logged odds: Odds = p = probability of prthe esence of the characteristic  1-p probability of absence of the characteristic &                       Logit (p) = log (p/(1-p)) = log (p) – log (1-p)

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Research Planing | Data Collection | Semantic Annotation | Consumer & Retail Analytics | Econometrics Copyright © 2019 Statswork. All rights reserved LOGISTIC REGRESSION IN R PROGRAMMING R is an easier platform to fit a logistic regression model using the function glm(). Question Fitting of  binary logistic model for the Titanic dataset that is available in Kaggle. • Frame the objective of the study as survival variable:  1 - survived, 0 - not survived and other - independent variables. • Loading the training data into the console using the function read.csv (). train.data<- read.csv('train.csv',header=T,na.strings=c("")) • Check  missing data before fitting using sapply() function in R. sapply(train.data,function(x) sum(is.na(x))) Procedure Check other missing entries in the subset data. There are different ways to replace the NA’s with either the mean or median of the data data\$Age[is.na(data\$Age)] <- mean(data\$Age,na.rm=T) LOGISTIC REGRESSION IMPLEMENTATION USING R PROGRAMMING

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Research Planing | Data Collection | Semantic Annotation | Consumer & Retail Analytics | Econometrics Copyright © 2019 Statswork. All rights reserved “Cabin”  and “PassengerId” variables are missing which are  skipped and made as subset of the data as new with the subset () function. data <- subset(train.data,select=c(2,3,5,6,7,8,10,12)) where the numeric values is the columns in the data file. PassengerId Survived Pclass Name Sex 0 0 0 0 0 Age SibSp Parch Ticket Fare 177 0 0 0 0 Cabin Embarked 687 2

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Research Planing | Data Collection | Semantic Annotation | Consumer & Retail Analytics | Econometrics Copyright © 2019 Statswork. All rights reserved FITTING LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL • Before fitting, Split the data into two sets: training set ( to fit the model) testing set (for testing). traindata<- data[1:800,] testdata<- data[801:889,] • Specify family = binomial in glm() function since our response is binary. lrmodel<- glm(Survived ~.,family=binomial(link='logit'),data=traindata) • The result of the model can be obtained using the following command: summary(lrmodel)

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Research Planing | Data Collection | Semantic Annotation | Consumer & Retail Analytics | Econometrics Copyright © 2019 Statswork. All rights reserved RESULT INTERPRETATION: From the p-value, • “Embarked”, “Fare”, and “SibSp” variables- not significant. • “sex “variable has lesser p-value so there is a strong association of passengers with the chance of survival. It is important to note that the response variable is log odds ln(odds) = ln(p/(1-p)) = a*x1 + b*x2 + … + z*xn. To analyse the deviance, use anova() function in R. anova(lrmodel, test="Chisq")

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Research Planing | Data Collection | Semantic Annotation | Consumer & Retail Analytics | Econometrics Copyright © 2019 Statswork. All rights reserved • Wider difference between the null deviance and the residual deviance indicates better model performance. • Large p-value indicates that the logistic regression model without that particular variable explains the same amount of variation. Hence found that Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) is the best model.

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Research Planing | Data Collection | Semantic Annotation | Consumer & Retail Analytics | Econometrics Copyright © 2019 Statswork. All rights reserved PREDICT THE MODEL ON A NEW SET OF DATA R enables us to do with predict() function. Let threshold for the new response data be P(y=1|X) > 0.5 then y = 1 otherwise y=0. The threshold changes according to the researchers needs. The following Table presents the accuracy prediction formulas especially when machine learning algorithms are applied. Table 4. Measures and formula fit.results<-predict(lrmodel,newdata=subset(test,select=c(2,3,4,5,6,7,8)),type='response') fit.results<- ifelse(fit.results> 0.5,1,0) Error<- mean(fit.results != test\$Survived) print(paste('Accuracy',1-Error)) Contd...

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Research Planing | Data Collection | Semantic Annotation | Consumer & Retail Analytics | Econometrics Copyright © 2019 Statswork. All rights reserved "Accuracy 0.842696629213483.“ • Accuracy= 84.26% (here data is split manually). Finally, we find the area under the curve by plotting Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve using the following commands: library(ROCR) A<-predict(lrmodel,newdata=subset(test,select=c(2,3,4,5,6,7,8)), type="response") Pre<- prediction (A, test\$Survived) Pre1<- performance(Pre, measure = "tpr", x.measure = "fpr") plot(Pre1) auc<- performance(Pre, measure = "auc") auc<- auc@y.values[[1]] auc 0.8647186

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Research Planing | Data Collection | Semantic Annotation | Consumer & Retail Analytics | Econometrics Copyright © 2019 Statswork. All rights reserved RESULTS ROC curve generates the true positive rate against false positive rate, similar to the sensitivity and specificity. Since Area Under the Curve (AUC) is closer to 1, then this is an good predicting model.