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Meaning FOREST : A forest (also called a wood, woodland, wold, weald, wellard or holt ) is an area with a high density of trees. There are many definitions of a forest, based on the various criteria. These plant communities cover approximately 9.4% of the Earth's surface (or 30% of total land area), though they once covered much more (about 50% of total land area), in many different regions and function as habitats for organisms, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the Earth's biosphere. Although a forest is classified primarily by trees a forest ecosystem is defined intrinsically with additional species such as fungi.

Classification :

Classification Forests can be classified in different ways and to different degrees of specificity. One such way is in terms of the "biome" in which they exist, combined with leaf longevity of the dominant species (whether they are evergreen or deciduous ). Another distinction is whether the forests composed predominantly of broadleaf trees, coniferous (needle-leaved) trees, or mixed .

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Boreal forests occupy the subarctic zone and are generally evergreen and coniferous. Temperate zones support both broadleaf deciduous forests ( e.g. , temperate deciduous forest ) and evergreen coniferous forests ( e.g. , Temperate coniferous forests and Temperate rainforests ). Warm temperate zones support broadleaf evergreen forests, including laurel forests . Tropical and subtropical forests include tropical and subtropical moist forests , tropical and subtropical dry forests , and tropical and subtropical coniferous forests . Physiognomy classifies forests based on their overall physical structure or developmental stage (e.g. old growth vs. second growth ). Forests can also be classified more specifically based on the climate and the dominant tree species present, resulting in numerous different forest types (e.g ., ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest).

Uses of forests:

Uses of forests When I think of how forests are useful to us I am reminded of the famous quote "The best friend of earth of man is the tree. When we use the tree respectfully and economically, we have one of the greatest resources on the earth." Frank Lloyd Wright Yes trees are the biggest resource we have on this earth ! Without trees we can't think of a life here on earth. Forests of the world are the treasure troves of useful things for man and animals.

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Forests affect the environment in a big way. Here are the various ways they affect the environment:- 1. Forests are the lungs of the earth. It is the trees which absorb the carbon dioxide released by the burning of fuel by man and keeps the air fresh. 2. The leaves use this carbon dioxide to produce food during photosynthesis, which is needed by animals. 3. The leaves after photosynthesis release oxygen which is a by-product of photosynthesis into the atmosphere. 4. This oxygen in the atmosphere is needed by all living organism for respiration. Without oxygen no animal or plant can survive on this earth! 5. The roots of trees help in absorbing the water from the ground and bring it up to the leaves. The excess water is sent out through the stomata and so the water vapour is released into the atmosphere.

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6. This excess water vapor in the air cools down the environment surrounding the forests and its neighborhood. So forests have a cooling effect. 7. The forests help in increasing the rainfall as this transpiration from leaves increases the cloud formation and thus brings plenty of rain. 8. Forests help in improving the fertility of the soil by the rotting of the dead leaves and animals, 9 Forests cover prevent soil erosion. 10. So no floods will happen as there won’t be any erosion. 11. Better rainfall results in better crop yield and so no drought or famine.

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Forests are intimately linked with our culture and civilization. Forests are useful to us in many ways: Forests provides timber for the furniture and building . Forests provides raw material for paper, board and plywood industry . Forests provides fodder for cattle, sheep, goat and other animals . Forests provides bamboo which is called poor man's timber. Forests gives protection to wild life .

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Forests helps in balancing the carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere. During photosynthesis, plants release O 2 and use CO 2 thus, they put check on the green house effect. Forests regulate the earth's temperature and weather cycle. They enhance local rainfall . Forests check soil erosion, landslides and also prevent floods . Forests also provide fruits, nuts, gums, rubber, dyes, fibre, medicines, camphor, essential oils etc. Forests are major sources of various animal products such as honey, wax, tussore, lac etc.

Uses of Forests Products for Us: :

Uses of Forests Products for Us: Forests have immense wealth to provide us. They are many products which are very useful to us. They are :- Timber: The forest trees provide good timber for building houses, furniture and other wooden articles we use in daily life. 2. Wood: The wood of trees are used as firewood by many to cook their food. 3. Forests are habitats for many animals. 4. Forests give us medicines and various drugs. Ayurvedic treatment is a special type of treatment of diseases and uses so many herbs and shrubs of the forest to produce medicines. 5. It provides us with bamboo for making paper and cardboard.

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6. Provides us with bees wax and honey. 7 Forests are full of wild animals of great diversity and beauty. 8. The trees provide us with gums and resins from the bark of trees. 9 Some trees provide us with dyes. 10 Some incest’s of the forest gives us lac. 11. Forests are home for so many species of flora and fauna. So how forests are useful to us is definitely in so many innumerable ways. So nurture nature ....our forests !!

Indirect Uses:- :

Indirect Uses:- Prevention and control of soil erosion: Forests play a significant role in the prevention and control of soil erosion by water and wind. The destruction of forest cover leads to increased runoff of rain water and its diminished seepage and storage in soil. The structure of the soil suffers, runoff increases and loosens the soil, which is carried away to other regions. The fertility of the soil is thus lost, and it becomes barren and unproductive. Flood control: Roots of the trees absorb much of the rain water and use it slowly during the dry season. Thus they regulate the flow of water and help in controlling the floods. Trees also check the flow of water. With the increased rate of deforestation, the frequency and the intensity of floods in the area also increases.

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Checks on spread of deserts: Sand particles are blown away by strong winds in the deserts and are carried over long distances, thus resulting in the spread of deserts. The roots of trees and plants bind the sand particles and do not permit their easy transportation by winds. In long run, the forests add humidity to the atmosphere and further help in checking the spread of deserts. Increase in soil fertility: The fallen leaves of trees add humus to soil after their decomposition. Thus, forests help in increasing the fertility of soil. Effect on temperature: Forests have a far reaching effect on climate. They ameliorate the extremes of climate by reducing the heat in summers and cold in winter. They also influence the amount of rainfall by lowering the temperature of moisture laden winds and increase the relative humidity of the air through the process of transpiration. They reduce the surface velocity of winds and retard the process of evaporation.

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