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Edit Comment Close Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: 6 Chapter Training EvaluationIntroduction (1 of 2): Introduction (1 of 2) Training effectiveness refers to the benefits that the company and the trainees receive from training Training outcomes or criteria refer to measures that the trainer and the company use to evaluate training programsIntroduction (2 of 2): Introduction (2 of 2) Training evaluation refers to the process of collecting the outcomes needed to determine if training is effective Evaluation design refers to from whom, what, when, and how information needed for determining the effectiveness of the training program will be collectedReasons for Evaluating Training (1 of 2): Reasons for Evaluating Training (1 of 2) Companies are investing millions of dollars in training programs to help gain a competitive advantage Training investment is increasing because learning creates knowledge which differentiates between those companies and employees who are successful and those who are notReasons for Evaluating Training (2 of 2): Reasons for Evaluating Training (2 of 2) Because companies have made large dollar investments in training and education and view training as a strategy to be successful, they expect the outcomes or benefits related to training to be measurable.Slide 6: Training evaluation provides the data needed to demonstrate that training does provide benefits to the company.Formative Evaluation: Formative Evaluation Formative evaluation – evaluation conducted to improve the training process Helps to ensure that: the training program is well organized and runs smoothly trainees learn and are satisfied with the program Provides information about how to make the program betterSummative Evaluation: Summative Evaluation Summative evaluation – evaluation conducted to determine the extent to which trainees have changed as a result of participating in the training program May also measure the return on investment (ROI) that the company receives from the training programWhy Should A Training Program Be Evaluated? (1 of 2): Why Should A Training Program Be Evaluated? (1 of 2) To identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses To assess whether content, organization, and administration of the program contribute to learning and the use of training content on the job To identify which trainees benefited most or least from the programWhy Should A Training Program Be Evaluated? (2 of 2): Why Should A Training Program Be Evaluated? (2 of 2) To gather data to assist in marketing training programs To determine the financial benefits and costs of the programs To compare the costs and benefits of training versus non-training investments To compare the costs and benefits of different training programs to choose the best programThe Evaluation Process: The Evaluation Process Conduct a Needs Analysis Develop Measurable Learning Outcomes and Analyze Transfer of Training Develop Outcome Measures Choose an Evaluation Strategy Plan and Execute the EvaluationTraining Outcomes: Kirkpatrick’s Four-Level Framework of Evaluation Criteria: Training Outcomes: Kirkpatrick’s Four-Level Framework of Evaluation Criteria Level Criteria Focus 1 Reactions Trainee satisfaction 2 Learning Acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes, behavior 3 Behavior Improvement of behavior on the job 4 Results Business results achieved by traineesOutcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: (1 of 4): Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: (1 of 4) Affective Outcomes Results Return on Investment Cognitive Outcomes Skill-Based OutcomesOutcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: (2 of 4): Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: (2 of 4) Cognitive Outcomes Determine the degree to which trainees are familiar with the principles, facts, techniques, procedures, or processes emphasized in the training program Measure what knowledge trainees learned in the program Skill-Based Outcomes Assess the level of technical or motor skills Include acquisition or learning of skills and use of skills on the jobOutcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: (3 of 4): Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: (3 of 4) Affective Outcomes Include attitudes and motivation Trainees’ perceptions of the program including the facilities, trainers, and content Results Determine the training program’s payoff for the companyOutcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: (4 of 4): Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: (4 of 4) Return on Investment (ROI) Comparing the training’s monetary benefits with the cost of the training direct costs indirect costs benefitsHow do you know if your outcomes are good?: How do you know if your outcomes are good? Good training outcomes need to be: Relevant Reliable Discriminative PracticalGood Outcomes: Relevance: Good Outcomes: Relevance Criteria relevance – the extent to which training programs are related to learned capabilities emphasized in the training program Criterion contamination – extent that training outcomes measure inappropriate capabilities or are affected by extraneous conditions Criterion deficiency – failure to measure training outcomes that were emphasized in the training objectivesCriterion deficiency, relevance, and contamination:: Criterion deficiency, relevance, and contamination: Outcomes Measured in Evaluation Outcomes Identified by Needs Assessment and Included in Training Objectives Outcomes Related to Training Objectives Contamination Relevance DeficiencyGood Outcomes (continued): Good Outcomes (continued) Reliability – degree to which outcomes can be measured consistently over time Discrimination – degree to which trainee’s performances on the outcome actually reflect true differences in performance Practicality – refers to the ease with which the outcomes measures can be collectedTraining Evaluation Practices: Training Evaluation Practices Outcomes Percentage of Courses Using OutcomeTraining Program Objectives and Their Implications for Evaluation:: Training Program Objectives and Their Implications for Evaluation: Reactions: Did trainees like the program? Did the environment help learning? Was material meaningful? Skill-Based: Ratings by peers or managers based on observation of behavior Cognitive: Pencil-and-paper tests Affective: Trainees’ motivation or job attitudes Skill-Based: Performance on a work sample Results: Did company benefit through sales, quality, productivity, reduced accidents, and complaints? Performance on work equipment Outcomes Learning Transfer ObjectiveEvaluation Designs: Threats to Validity: Evaluation Designs: Threats to Validity Threats to validity refer to a factor that will lead one to question either: The believability of the study results (internal validity) , or The extent to which the evaluation results are generalizable to other groups of trainees and situations (external validity)Threats to Validity: Threats to Validity Threats To Internal Validity Company Persons Outcome Measures Threats To External Validity Reaction to pretest Reaction to evaluation Interaction of selection and training Interaction of methodsMethods to Control for Threats to Validity: Methods to Control for Threats to Validity Pre- and Posttests Use of Comparison Groups Random AssignmentTypes of Evaluation Designs: Types of Evaluation Designs Posttest – only Pretest / Posttest Posttest – only with Comparison Group Pretest / Posttest with Comparison Group Time Series Time Series with Comparison Group and Reversal Solomon Four–GroupComparison of Evaluation Designs (1 of 2): Comparison of Evaluation Designs (1 of 2) Design Groups Pre-training Post-training Cost Time Strength Posttest Only Trainees No Yes Low Low Low Pretest / Posttest Trainees Yes Yes Low Low Medium Posttest Only with Comparison Group Trainees and Comparison No Yes Medium Medium Medium Pretest / Posttest with Comparison Group Trainees and Comparison Yes Yes Medium Medium High MeasuresComparison of Evaluation Designs (2 of 2): Comparison of Evaluation Designs (2 of 2) Design Groups Pre-training Post-training Cost Time Strength Time Series Trainees Yes Yes, several Medium Medium Medium Time Series with Comparison Group and Reversal Trainees and Comparison Yes Yes, several High Medium High Solomon Four-Group Trainees A Trainees B Comparison A Comparison B Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes High High High MeasuresExample of a Pretest / Posttest Comparison Group Design:: Example of a Pretest / Posttest Comparison Group Design: Pre-training Training Post-training Time 1 Post-training Time 2 Lecture Yes Yes Yes Yes Self-Paced Yes Yes Yes Yes Behavior Modeling Yes Yes Yes Yes No Training (Comparison) Yes No Yes YesExample of a Solomon Four-Group Design:: Example of a Solomon Four-Group Design: Pretest Training Posttest Group 1 Yes IL-based Yes Group 2 Yes Traditional Yes Group 3 No IL-based Yes Group 4 No Traditional YesFactors That Influence the Type of Evaluation Design: Factors That Influence the Type of Evaluation Design Factor How Factor Influences Type of Evaluation Design Change potential Can program be modified? Importance Does ineffective training affect customer service, product development, or relationships between employees? Scale How many trainees are involved? Purpose of training Is training conducted for learning, results, or both? Organization culture Is demonstrating results part of company norms and expectations? Expertise Can a complex study be analyzed? Cost Is evaluation too expensive? Time frame When do we need the information?Conditions for choosing a rigorous evaluation design: (1 of 2): Conditions for choosing a rigorous evaluation design: (1 of 2) The evaluation results can be used to change the program The training program is ongoing and has the potential to affect many employees (and customers) The training program involves multiple classes and a large number of trainees Cost justification for training is based on numerical indicatorsConditions for choosing a rigorous evaluation design: (2 of 2): Conditions for choosing a rigorous evaluation design: (2 of 2) You or others have the expertise to design and evaluate the data collected from the evaluation study The cost of training creates a need to show that it works There is sufficient time for conducting an evaluation There is interest in measuring change from pre-training levels or in comparing two or more different programsImportance of Training Cost Information: Importance of Training Cost Information To understand total expenditures for training, including direct and indirect costs To compare costs of alternative training programs To evaluate the proportion of money spent on training development, administration, and evaluation as well as to compare monies spent on training for different groups of employees To control costsTo calculate return on investment (ROI), follow these steps: (1 of 2): To calculate return on investment (ROI), follow these steps: (1 of 2) Identify outcome(s) (e.g., quality, accidents) Place a value on the outcome(s) Determine the change in performance after eliminating other potential influences on training results. Obtain an annual amount of benefits (operational results) from training by comparing results after training to results before training (in dollars)To calculate return on investment (ROI), follow these steps: (2 of 2): To calculate return on investment (ROI), follow these steps: (2 of 2) Determine training costs (direct costs + indirect costs + development costs + overhead costs + compensation for trainees) Calculate the total savings by subtracting the training costs from benefits (operational results) Calculate the ROI by dividing benefits (operational results) by costs The ROI gives you an estimate of the dollar return expected from each dollar invested in training.Determining Costs for a Cost-Benefit Analysis:: Determining Costs for a Cost-Benefit Analysis: Development Costs Overhead Costs Compensation for Trainees Direct Costs Indirect CostsExample of Return on Investment: Example of Return on Investment Industry Training Program ROI Bottling company Workshops on managers’ roles 15:1 Large commercial bank Sales training 21:1 Electric & gas utility Behavior modification 5:1 Oil company Customer service 4.8:1 Health maintenance organization Team training 13.7:1 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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