Sudarshan Singh Shekhawat -AGM HRD- Behaviour Based Safety -21-06-2012

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Behaviour-based safety is concerned with correcting unsafe behaviours, and thus to reduce accidents and promote safe behaviours, developing an injury free culture in organizations. BBS touches the root causes of accidents.

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Behaviour Based Safety:

Behaviour Based Safety SUDARSHAN SINGH SHEKHAWAT ASSTT. GEN. MGR. [HRD] AN INTRODUCTION TO

Injury Statistics . . . In INDIA:

Injury Statistics . . . In INDIA 124 people die at workplace everyday 46575 people are injured 32% contribution to global fatality at work 37% of global burden of occupational injury Question: Are injuries totally eliminated? WHAT IS MISSING? WHERE IS THE CATCH?

What is Behaviour?:

What is Behaviour? Behaviour is anything that a person says, does, thinks or feels Eg: Working at heights with safety belts Behaviour should be observable, specific Behavioural safety is the application of behavioural research on human performance to the problems of safety in the workplace. This means that any safety program labeling itself as a behavioural safety program must meet the standards of behaviour analytic research as practices are applied to the workplace.

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4 Behaviour: Any directly measurable thing that a person does, including speaking, acting, and performing physical functions. Behaviour-based safety (BBS) is the "application of science of behavior change to real world problems". BBS "focuses on what people do, analyzes why they do it, and then applies a research-supported intervention strategy to improve what people do". Definitions:

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5 Human behaviour is both: ð Observable ð Measurable therefore Behaviour can be managed !

Attitudes Are inside a person’s head -therefore they are not observable or measurable :

6 Attitudes A re inside a person’s head -therefore they are not observable or measurable Attitudes can be changed by changing behaviours however

Q: Why focus on behaviour?:

Reactive Proactive A: It’s the best way of measuring how well your system is working! Q: Why focus on behaviour? Systems’ Weaknesses Serious Injuries At-Risk Behaviors Non Serious Injuries Near Misses

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BEHAVIOR - THE ICEBERG Known to others 10% Unknown to others 90% Sea level

Objectives:

Objectives The benefits of behaviour-based systems. The basic principles of how to motivate safe behaviour. A company’s readiness for behaviour-based safety. Compare and contrast the different behaviour-based systems on the market today. Behaviour-based safety is concerned with correcting unsafe behaviours, and thus to reduce accidents and promote safe behaviours, developing an injury free culture in organizations. BBS touches the root causes of accidents.

What percentage of these accidents are a result of::

What percentage of these accidents are a result of: Unsafe conditions, rules violations, dangerous equipment? 6% Unsafe actions, at-risk behaviours, poor decisions? 94%

Why Safety Programs Do Not Work::

Why Safety Programs Do Not Work: Safety is a priority , not a value ! Safety is not managed in the same manner as production, quality, and cost issues! Safety is not driven through continuous improvement!

Principles of BBS:

Principles of BBS Its important to think about safety, its more important to ensure that people behave safely in organization. Behaviour is the cause of accidents Consequence motivate behaviour What gets measured, gets done Feedback is essential to improvement Quality is built early in the process Conversations change organizations

Common Unsafe Behaviours :

Common Unsafe Behaviours Personal Protective Equipment ( PPE ) Housekeeping Using tools and equipments Body Positioning / protecting Material Handling Communication (Importance of work permit system) Following Procedures Visual focusing BBS emphasizes that employee need to take an ownership of their safe as well as unsafe behaviours. If they behave unsafe, they are not punished, instead they are repeatedly told to correct; and when they behave safe, they are encouraged.

Behavioural Safety Management:

Behavioural Safety Management People behave unsafe because it saves their times and efforts (taking short cuts or not using PPE) “I've always done the job this way” To be effective: Integrate the fundamental elements of BBS into the Safety Management System elements How? Identify (pinpoint) critical behaviours ( Exercise Later ) Define behaviors precisely to measure them reliably Implement mechanisms to determine current status Provide feedback Reinforce progress

How to Implement BBS ?:

How to Implement BBS ? 7 Steps Process Identify Unsafe Acts in all your operations. Make a list of safe acts for these unsafe acts. Audit Unsafe Acts & Conditions. Report Measure no. of safe / unsafe acts. Know your scores Set Improvement Goals . Identify actions to achieve the goals. Implement Actions Monitor actions implementation & trends of Unsafe Acts & conditions Continually improve performance Recognize performers & celebrate achievement Talk directly to workmen & Involves shop floor workers and safety committee representatives as there are more resources going into increased health and safety training and skills development

Basic Elements of BBS:

Basic Elements of BBS Identify/define targeted safe behaviours. Observe behaviours. Measure process/activities. Deliver feedback. Deliver positive consequences. Analyze variance / clash / take action. Improve process continuously. To be successful a BBS program must include all employees, from the CEO to the floor associates. To achieve changes in behavior, a change in policy, procedures and/or systems most confidently will also need some change.

The Behavioural Process:

RESULTS CRITICAL SAFE & PROCESS SUPPORT BEHAVIORS PERFORMANCE VERBAL & GRAPHIC ON PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT PINPOINT EVALUATE MEASURE REINFORCE GIVE FEEDBACK The Behavioural Process

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If BBS has to Succeed then . . . Top Management Commitment is essential Ownership & involvement from all employees Steering Committee to monitor in plants Training to all on BBS & safety practices Effective Feedback – Most important Performance monitoring & Continual improvement

Core Elements in Successful Safety Programs:

Core Elements in Successful Safety Programs A culture that says “safety” is important around here! A tight accountability system! – Ex. Work Permit System Safe Behaviour = Safety Assurance

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20 An excellent tool for collecting data on the quality of a company’s safety management system A scientific way to understand why people behave the way they do when it comes to safety Properly applied, an effective next step towards creating a truly pro-active safety culture where loss prevention is a core value Conceptually easy to understand but often hard to implement and sustain Behaviour Based Safety: What Is It?

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21 Only about observation and feedback Concerned only about the behaviours of line employees A substitution for traditional risk management techniques About cheating & manipulating people & aversive control A focus on incident rates without a focus on behaviour A process that does not need employee involvement Behaviour Based Safety: What It Is Not!

Obstacles To Success::

22 Obstacles To Success: Poorly Maintained Facilities Top-down Management Practices Poor Planning / Execution Inadequate Training A major problem with behaviour-based safety is the fact that when behaviorism was held up to the scrutiny of the scientific method it failed.

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Lack of Policy/ Guidelines/ Practices Poorly defined responsibility No authority to act Little accountability or measurement No analysis of incidents No orientation of new / transferred staff Lack of clear Safety Procedure / Standards Obstacles …….. S ystems Causes

Keys to Success: :

24 Keys to Success: Meaningful Employee Empowerment Designing a Well Planned and Supported BBS Process Managing BBS Process with Integrity

Turn & Talk (Open Session):

Turn & Talk (Open Session) What kinds of injuries and accidents are common at your workplace?

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At-risk Behaviors Near Miss (hit) Property Damage Minor Injury Major Fatality

Traditional Safety:

Traditional Safety Fewer Accidents Safety Training Policies Slogans Safety Meetings Contests & Awards Committees & Councils Reprimands Regulations

Behaviour Based Safety:

Behaviour Based Safety Safety Activities Fewer at-risk Behaviours Fewer Accidents

What Behaviour-based is...:

What Behaviour-based is... Safe People vs Safe Places Injuries Equal Management Errors Behavior Management Measure Behaviors vs Results Observation & Feedback Positive Reinforcement

Organizational Performance Model:

Organizational Performance Model Great Performance Systems Behaviors Climate

Behaviours:

Behaviours Honesty and Integrity Ask for help without taking responsibility Recognition Observation and feedback Trust Listen with empathy

Climate Variables:

Climate Variables Confidence/trust Interest in people Understanding problems Training/helping Teaching to solve problems Much information Approachability Recognition

Turn & Talk (Discussion):

Turn & Talk (Discussion) What is the primary purpose of a supervisor? What is the most effective way to motivate people?

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34 ð Activators (what needs to be done ) ð Competencies (how it needs to be done) ð Consequences (what happens if it is done ) Human Behaviour is a function of :

Definitions::

35 Definitions: Activators: A person, place, thing or event that happens before a behaviour takes place that encourages you to perform that behaviour. Activators only set the stage for behaviour or performance - they don’t control it.

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36 Some examples of activators

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37 Some examples of behaviour:

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38 Definitions: Consequences: Events that follow behaviours. Consequences increase or decrease the probability that the behaviours will occur again in the future. Oh please let it be Bob ! If you don’t send in that payment we’ll take you to court

Behavioural Model:

Behavioural Model B = f (c) Antecedents (previous circumstances) Behaviors Consequences

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40 Some example of Consequences:

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41 Consequences - How would you view them? Sunbathing Aggressive Drivers

Only 4 Types of Consequences::

42 Positive Reinforcement (R+) ("Do this & you'll be rewarded") Negative Reinforcement (R-) ("Do this or else you'll be penalized") Punishment (P) ("If you do this, you'll be penalized") Extinction (E) ("Ignore it and it'll go away") Only 4 Types of Consequences: Behaviour

Consequences Influence Behaviours Based Upon Individual Perceptions of::

43 Consequences Influence Behaviours Based Upon Individual Perceptions of: Timing - immediate or future Consistency - certain or uncertain Significance - positive or negative { Magnitude / Size - large or small Impact - personal or other

Consequences need to be ...:

Consequences need to be ... Soon vs Delayed Certain vs Uncertain Positive vs Negative Personal vs Organizational

Both Positive (R+) & Negative (R-) Reinforcement Can Increase Behaviour:

45 Both Positive (R+) & Negative (R-) Reinforcement Can Increase Behaviour R+ : any consequence that follows a behaviour and increases the probability that the behavior will occur more often in the future - You get something you want R- : a consequence that strengthens any behaviour that reduces or terminates the behaviour - You escape or avoid something you don’t want

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46 Good safety suggestion Gopi ! Keep bringing ‘me up! R+ R- One more report like this and you’re out a here!!

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47 Why is one sign often ignored, the other one often followed?

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48 To create conditions that encourage people to collaborate because they want to not because they have to Let’s do it!! The BBS Challenge:

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Performance Motivation Motivation Model Ability

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Performance Motivation Selection - Can they do it Training - Do they know how Motivation Model Ability

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Performance Motivation Job Climate - Boss & Peer relationships, Work environment Selection - Can they do it Training - Do they know how Motivation Model Ability

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The Job Itself - Any fun, challenge Performance Motivation Job Motivational Factors Achievement, Promotion, Recognition, Responsibility Job Climate - Boss & Peer relationships, Work environment Selection - Can they do it Training - Do they know how Motivation Model Ability

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The Job Itself - Any fun, challenge Performance Motivation Union - Norms, Pressures Peer Groups - Norms, Pressures Job Motivational Factors Achievement, Promotion, Recognition, Responsibility Job Climate - Boss & Peer relationships, Work environment Selection - Can they do it Training - Do they know how Motivation Model Ability

Benefits of Behaviour-based Approaches:

Benefits of Behaviour-based Approaches Average Reduction of Injury Frequency - 40 to 75 percent reductions in accident rates and accident costs year on year - 20 to 30 percent improvements in safety behaviour year on year Implementation of BBS After 1 year 34% After 2 years 44% After 3 years 61% After 4 years 71%

Why Implement BBS?:

Why Implement BBS? Safety is about people. Compliance is not sufficient. Consequences drive behaviour. Transcends workplace safety Motivating Performance Feedback Truly proactive / practical Wide awareness Deep Involvement Proven effective

Three Essential Questions:

Three Essential Questions What behaviours are being observed? Why are those behaviours present? Now What will be done to correct the system deficiencies?

Roles and Responsibilities:

Roles and Responsibilities Workers Observers / Supervisors Safety Staff Managers Safety Involvement Team

Are You Ready for Behaviour-Based Safety?:

Are You Ready for Behaviour-Based Safety?

Safety Observation Process:

Safety Observation Process Step 1: PLAN where and when to make observations and recall what to look for Step 2: OBSERVE worker behaviour for safe and at-risk performance Step 3: COACH for improved performance by positively reinforcing or redirecting Step 4: RECORD what was observed, why it occurred, and now what will be done

Step 1: PLAN:

Step 1: PLAN Decide a time and place to observe Review the Observation Memory Review Feedback and Coaching Tips

Step 2: OBSERVE:

Step 2: OBSERVE Snapshots of behaviour Allow no distractions / interruptions Observe people and surroundings Stop any at-risk behaviour immediately Stop observing after 30 seconds or at-risk behaviour is observed, which ever comes first

Step 3: COACH:

Step 3: COACH Provide positive reinforcement (R+) if safe Coach by shaping behavior if at-risk Ignore what you saw Discipline

Step 4: RECORD:

Step 4: RECORD Anonymous, specific, timely Safe and At-Risk behaviors on Memory What, Why, Now What Take Action

Rate Each Statement on a Scale from 0 to 3:

Rate Each Statement on a Scale from 0 to 3 0= Weakness 1=Some aspects covered 2=Could be improved 3=Strength

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Are You Ready? How Do You Deal with Safety? GROUP EXERCISE – Identify Unsafe Acts in all your operations. Make a list of safe acts for these unsafe acts.

Leadership:

Leadership Leadership commitment to safety is active, visible, and lively A clear and inspiring vision has been established for safe performance Safety is viewed and treated as a line management responsibility Safety is clearly perceived as an organizational value on the same level with productivity and quality

Systems & Processes:

Systems & Processes Supervisors and workers partner to find and correct systems causes of incidents Communication systems are abundant / rich, effective and flow well in all directions Training systems deliberately and systematically create competency for the right people at the right time Safe operating procedures and policies are clearly defined and communicated

Involvement:

Involvement Workers are skilled at problem solving and decision making Workmen and management work together to address safety systems issues Team orientation achieves involvement and cooperation Innovation, participation and suggestions are encouraged at all levels

Organizational Style:

Organizational Style Trust and openness are the norm Positive reinforcement is used regularly Bureaucratic obstacles are removed There is formal and informal recognition for great performance at all levels

Measurement and Accountability:

Measurement and Accountability All levels of the organization have safety goals and process responsibilities clearly defined The process of achieving results is a key safety measure Performance reviews include accountability for safe performance at all levels Supervision is accountable to perform safety observations and feedback

Continuous Improvement:

Continuous Improvement Data Compilation Safety Involvement Team Problem solving Implement solutions Successful?

Shaping Behaviour:

Shaping Behaviour Communicate the behaviour you saw Check for understanding of the job Coach for improved performance Contract for safe behaviour

Coaching and Feedback for the skilled observer:

Coaching and Feedback for the skilled observer

Coaching Tips:

Coaching Tips Use “I” vs. “You” language Appeal to other’s interests and goals Reflect feelings or emotions that go beyond the words Set limits to clarify expectations Talk about the behaviour, not the person

Coaching Tips Continued…:

Coaching Tips Continued… Keep calm / cool Don’t personalize emotion of others Move to problem solving Focus on interests rather than position Find common ground

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ARZ HAI ……. Jeevan me kamyab hone ke liya 03 factory lagoo !!! Dimag me Ice Factory Zuban par Sugar Factory Dil me Love Factory Phir life hogi “ SATISFACTORY ”

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Feedback & Suggestion OPEN HOUSE

Thank You:

Thank You DWARIKESH SUGAR INDUSTRIES LIMITED There is no limit to what can be accomplished, If it doesn’t matter who gets the CREDIT. HRD TEAM

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