Coffee Versus Tea Study

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Effects of caffeinated coffee and caffeinated tea consumption on sleep quantity.

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The literature highlights the harsh effects of caffeine, such as sleep deprivation, anxiety, sleep disordered breathing, symptoms of possible leukemia, issues of well being, and even some mental health disorders (Aurora, Caffo, Crainiceanu, & Punjabi, 2017, p. 1). Research demonstrates that over a long period of time, adolescents and adults experience significant physical and psychological problems when drinking elevated amounts of coffee on a regular basis (Parodi, Merlo, & Stagnaro, 2017, p. 1). Conversely, the literature disputes the presence of similar effects when consuming elevated amounts of tea. Method Discussion Coffee Versus Tea Study Hannah Newcomb, Kelda Hartman, Sheiaundra Brady, and Samantha Meckes Azusa Pacific University Chart #1 Chart #2 References Literature Review Results Male and female adults between the ages of 18-35 participated in the study. The participants live in various parts of the United States, although primarily in California. The primary investigators selected friends and/or colleagues to participate in the study; the study did not include a randomly selected participant population. Eighteen individuals fully answered each of the ten questions. The first eight questions required the participants to respond on a Likert Scale, from “ strongly disagree ” to “ strongly agree. ” Each response was coded with a numerical value between 1 and 5, respectively. The results of questions one, four, five, and seven were the primary focus of this study. The primary investigators proposed that adults (ages 18-35) who only drink caffeinated coffee sleep less than adults who only drink caffeinated tea. Thus, any further use of “ coffee ” and “ tea ” in this section will specifically refer to caffeinated coffee and caffeinated tea. Aurora, R. N., Caffo, B., Crainiceanu, C., & Punjabi, N. (2011). Sleep- disordered breathing and caffeine consumption: Results of a community- based study. Chest , 142(3), 631-638. http://0- dx.doi.org.patris.apu.edu/ 10.1378/chest.11-2894

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Literature Review The literature highlights the harsh effects of caffeine, such as sleep deprivation, anxiety, sleep disordered breathing, symptoms of possible leukemia, issues of well being, and even some mental health disorders (Aurora, Caffo, Crainiceanu, & Punjabi, 2017, p. 1). Research demonstrates that over a long period of time, adolescents and adults experience significant physical and psychological problems when drinking elevated amounts of coffee on a regular basis (Parodi, Merlo, & Stagnaro, 2017, p. 1). Conversely, the literature disputes the presence of similar effects when consuming elevated amounts of tea. Rather, the research suggests that tea can help to heal the body (Garcia-Blanco, Davalos, & Visioli, 2016). This discrepancy influenced the primary investigators of the Coffee Versus Tea Study to compare the impact of caffeinated coffee and caffeinated tea consumption on sleep quantity in study participants. Several studies demonstrated the negative impacts of caffeine consumption by studying the neurological, physical, and psychological changes in mice after longterm caffeine consumption. Botton et al. (2017) gave mice a certain dosage of caffeine (0.3 and 1.0 mg/ml, drinking water per day) during the workdays of the week for 14 months. They examined the neural synapses and recorded maze completion times weekly for these mice. The researchers found that after six months of age, the mice who received a consistent dose of caffeine developed a tolerance in certain synapses in the brain associated with increased anxiety. Additionally, Hughes & Hancock (2017) concluded that longterm caffeine consumption decreased activity and increased anxiety in rats. Because consistent caffeine dosage may increase anxiety, consequently causing sleep deprivation, the primary investigators of the Coffee Versus Tea Study sought to further explore the connection between caffeine consumption and sleep. Additionally, Aurora, Caffo, Crainiceanu, & Punjabi (2011) investigated the impact of daily caffeine consumption on daytime sleepiness, as measured by The Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Aurora, Caffo, Crainiceanu, & Punjabi (2011) specifically found a significant correlation between caffeinated soda and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity, but no correlation between coffee or tea consumption and SDB. Moreover, these researchers uncovered a more significant correlation between caffeinated soda consumption and SDB in male participants. Unlike sex, age did not impact the significance of the correlation between caffeine consumption and the presence of SDB. The results of this study influenced the primary researchers of the Coffee Versus Tea Study to assess for all caffeinated beverages that our participants might consume. Watson, Banks, Coates & Kohler (2017) looked at the effects of caffeine consumption in children. The researchers gave questionnaires to children and their primary caretakers to gain insight about childhood caffeine consumption and its impact on behavior and sleep. Although the participants of this study consumed far less caffeine compared to average adult consumption, even the small amount of caffeine consumed during childhood adversely affected behavior and sleep in the study participants. This research confirmed the connection between caffeine and sleep disturbances, even in children.

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Literature Review Continued Owens and Weiss (2017) studied the causation and consequences of sleep deprivation in adolescents. Adolescents deprived of sleep experienced disruptions in their circadian rhythms. The investigators also identified “ extracurricular activities, excessive homework load, evening use of electronic media, caffeine intake and early school start times ” as causes of “ inadequate sleep ” (Owens & Weiss, 2017, p. 928). Owens & Weiss (2017) emphasized that hormonal differences and external factors contributed to sleep deprivation in adolescents, thus influencing the primary investigators of the Coffee Versus Tea Study to further assess for other identifiable factors of sleep deprivation in the study ’ s participants. Another study of caffeine and sleep conducted by Carrier et al. (2006) evaluated the effects of a 200-mg administration of caffeine on polysomnographic sleep variables and quantitative sleep electroencephalography (EEG) in moderate adult caffeine consumers (defined as one to three cups of coffee consumed per day). They found that the ingestion of caffeine lengthened sleep latency, reduced sleep efficiency, and decreased sleep duration and amount (Carrier, J., Drapeau, C., Filipini, D., Hamel-Hebert, I., Semlaoui, B., & Robillard, R., 2006, pp. 1-13). Given the negative impact of caffeine on sleep highlighted in the literature, the primary investigators of the Coffee Versus Tea Study sought to differentiate the impact of coffee versus tea consumption on sleep. Although many studies looked at the effects of caffeine generally, few studies contrasted the impacts between varying types of caffeine consumption. Parodi, Merlo & Stagnaro (2017) explored the health benefits of coffee versus tea in cancer patients (Smith, 2016); Smith (2016) examined general health benefits of coffee versus tea; Strahler & Nater (2017) examined the momentary effects of dietary behaviors on wellbeing; Garcia-Blanco, Davalos, & Visioli (2016) asserted that the consumption of tea and coffee protects against depression; and Kaya, Kizilkaya, Aydin, & Hassa (2016) discussed the connection between caffeine consumption and infertility. Although most studies focused on the impact of caffeinated coffee, Robson (2016) briefly expanded upon the impacts of coffee versus tea consumption on arousal and sleep. Robson (2016) stated that “ although both [coffee and tea] lend similar benefits to...attention during the day, coffee drinkers tend to find it harder to drop off at night ... Tea drinkers, in contrast, had longer and more restful slumbers ” (n.p.). Furthermore, perceptions of the impact of tea versus coffee consumption on sleep inaccurately reflect reality. Despite these perceptions, both coffee and tea leave participants feeling similarly alert during the day. The primary investigators of the Coffee Versus Tea Study aimed to further contribute to the body of literature which specifically addresses the differences between coffee and tea consumption and sleep quantity.

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Method Participants Male and female adults between the ages of 18-35 participated in the study. The participants live in various parts of the United States, although primarily in California. The primary investigators selected friends and/or colleagues to participate in the study; the study did not include a randomly selected participant population. All participants graduated form college and currently work in various fields or attend graduate school. All participants volunteered and consented to participate in the study. Materials The primary investigators utilized several resources and/or materials to assist in creating, uploading, and compiling the data. The “ Poster Project Guide, ” “ Poster Project Resources, ” “ Poster Project Template, ” and “ Poster Project Timeline ” sections, available on Sakai, served as significant guiding resources for the organization and implementation of this study. Two previous studies, also available through Sakai, explored similar topics — “ Soda Pop preference ” and “ College Students ’ Coffee Consumption ” — and guided the primary investigators in the early stages of this study.

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Method Continued Additionally, the primary investigators created a survey through SurveyMonkey, in order to gather and analyze participant responses. Through the survey, the primary investigators posed 10 questions (eight quantitative questions and two qualitative questions). The quantitative questions required participants to respond via Likert Scale ( “ strongly disagree, ” “ disagree, ” “ neutral, ” “ agree, ” or “ strongly agree ” ) while the qualitative questions required participants to type their own response. After completing data collection, the primary investigators used SurveyMonkey data analysis tools, Microsoft Excel, Google Sheets, Apple Numbers, Microsoft Word, Google Documents, and Apple Pages to prepare the data for presentation. Procedure The primary investigators submitted a draft of the survey to the instructor for approval. After receiving approval, the primary investigators contacted the Office of Institutional Assessment (OIRA) for permission to conduct the survey. After the OIRA representative approved the study, the primary investigators created the survey on SurveyMonkey.com, which included the OIRA approval header. Each group member contacted four to five participants via email to complete the survey. The primary investigators allotted three weeks for the participants to complete the survey, at which point the primary investigators collected and analyzed the data. After analysis, the primary investigators prepared the data for presentation with the assistance of the aforementioned tools.

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Results Eighteen individuals fully answered each of the ten questions. The first eight questions required the participants to respond on a Likert Scale, from “ strongly disagree ” to “ strongly agree. ” Each response was coded with a numerical value between 1 and 5, respectively. The results of questions one, four, five, and seven were the primary focus of this study. In response to question one (M=2.33, SD=1.41; see Table 1), on average, participants disagreed with the statement “ I sleep at least eight hours per night. ” However, the high standard deviation indicates that the participants responded with a wide variety of answers, not closely grouped around the mean response, as displayed in Chart 1. In response to question four (M=2.89, SD=1.68; see Table 1), on average, participants were neutral in regard to the statement that “ Coffee is the only caffeinated beverage that I drink on a daily basis. ” However, the high standard deviation indicates that the participants responded with a wide variety of answers, not closely grouped around the mean response, as displayed in Chart 2. In response to question five (M=1.72, SD=1.02; see Table 1), on average, participants disagreed with the statement “ Tea is the only caffeinated beverage I drink on a daily basis. ” However, the high standard deviation indicates that the participants responded with a wide variety of answers, not closely grouped around the mean response, as displayed in Chart 3. In response to question seven (M=3.61, SD = 1.42; see Table 1), on average, participants agreed with the statement “ I sleep less than eight hours a night. ” However, the high standard deviation indicates that the participants responded with a wide range variety of answers, not closely grouped around the mean response, as displayed in Chart 4.

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Results Continued The results of questions one, four, five, and seven allowed the primary investigators to determine the correlation between quantity of sleep and choice of caffeinated beverage (i.e. coffee or tea). A slight negative correlation (-0.28) exists between between sleep quantity and coffee consumption. That is, of the participants who “ disagreed ” or “ strongly disagreed ” with sleeping more than eight hours per night also “ agreed ” or “ strongly agreed ” with only drinking caffeinated coffee on a daily basis. However, a similar negative correlation (-0.22) exists between sleep quantity and tea consumption. That is, of the study participants who “ disagreed ” or “ strongly disagreed ” with sleeping more than eight hours per night also “ agreed ” or “ strongly agreed ” with only drinking caffeinated tea on a daily basis. To ensure consistency, the survey also required participants to respond to the following question: “ I sleep less than eight hours per night. ” As expected, a slight positive correlation (0.08) exists between those who “ agreed ” or “ strongly agreed ” with sleeping less than eight hours per night and “ agreed ” or “ strongly agreed ” with drinking only caffeinated coffee on a daily basis. And, a slight positive correlation (0.29) exists between those who “ agreed ” or “ strongly agreed ” with sleeping less than eight hours per night and “ agreed ” or “ strongly agreed ” with drinking only caffeinated tea on a daily basis. In response to the ninth question, 5 participants identified “ children ” and 8 identified “ stress, ” “ anxiety, ” and/or busyness as factors impacting their sleep. In response to the tenth question, inquiring about servings of caffeine consumed on a daily basis, 4 participants said “ 0, ” 5 participants said “ 1, ” “ 2, ” or “ 1-2, ” and 3 participants said “ 3 ” or “ 3-4. ” One participant said “ 0.25 (I usually have soda once or twice a week and hardly ever drink coffee/tea) ” and another participant said “ 16. ”

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Chart 1

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Chart 2

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Chart 3

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Chart 4

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Table 1

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Discussion The primary investigators proposed that adults (ages 18-35) who only drink caffeinated coffee sleep less than adults who only drink caffeinated tea. Thus, any further use of “ coffee ” and “ tea ” in this section will specifically refer to caffeinated coffee and caffeinated tea. An investigation of the available literature aligned with the above hypothesis. For example, Robson (2016) reported that tea drinkers have longer and more restful slumbers than coffee drinkers. Unfortunately, the data collected did not align with Robson ’ s (2016) findings, nor did it confirm the hypothesis. Because only one of the 18 participants reported drinking only tea, the investigators were unable to make a reliable comparison between the sleep patterns of coffee and tea drinkers. Although the tea drinker did not appear to sleep more than the coffee drinkers, the investigators were unable to draw a reliable conclusion from the limited data. The investigators did not expect that 17 of the 18 participants would “ strongly disagree ” or “ disagree ” when asked if they drink only tea on a daily basis. However, an analysis of the data uncovered some significant findings worth further discussion and investigation. A majority of the participants (56%) reported sleeping less than eight hours per night. Of these participants, all but one reported drinking caffeinated beverages. Of the five participants who reported sleeping at least eight hours per night, three reported drinking no caffeinated beverages at all. Therefore, the investigators concluded that caffeine indeed impacts sleep, regardless of the type of caffeine consumed, in line with the literature (Aurora, Caffo, Crainiceanu, & Punjabi, 2011; Watson, Banks, Coates & Kohler, 2017; Owens and Weiss, 2017; Carrier et al., 2006). These researchers recommend further investigation into the effects of various forms of caffeine on sleep, given the inconclusive results of this study and the dearth of literature differentiating between different types of caffeine. Although the study lacked participants who drank tea solely, half of our participants reported only drinking coffee. Of those nine, five reported sleeping less than eight hours per night. Of the other four, three had to be eliminated from the results due to errors in answering the survey (i.e. they agreed with both of the following statements: “ On average, I sleep at least eight hours per night ” and “ On average, I sleep less than eight hours per night ” ). Therefore, less than half of the coffee drinkers reported sleeping more than eight hours per night, aligning with an underlying premise of the study ’ s hypothesis (i.e. coffee consumption negatively impacts sleep quantity). Interestingly, the participant who reported sleeping at least eight hours per night and drinking caffeinated beverages (coffee) also brought up a factor for which the investigators did not control. The participant noted that the time of caffeine consumption determined the subsequent impact on sleep. Future investigators should evaluate, and control for, time of caffeine consumption and its impact on sleep.

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Discussion Continued Additionally, these investigators recognize that caffeine consumption and sleep habits interaction bidirectionally. That is, a lack of sleep may cause the individual to consume more caffeine, rather than an increase in caffeine consumption causing the lack of sleep. Additionally, caffeine consumption and sleep habits may interact circuitously. That is, poor sleep or lack of sleep results in caffeine consumption which then negatively impacts sleep. Thus, future researchers must carefully analyze results so as not to imply causality, when the data only confirms correlation. The primary investigators also assessed for confounding variables, the presence of which may otherwise explain a correlation between caffeine consumption and sleep quantity. Several participants noted anxiety as a factor negatively impacting sleep. Interestingly, the literature confirms that the effects of caffeine include increased anxiety (Botton et al., 2017; Hughes & Hancock, 2017). Thus, future research should seek to determine if eliminating caffeine consumption positively impacts sleep and anxiety. Also, Aurora, Caffo, Crainiceanu, & Punjabi (2011) demonstrated that caffeine consumption impacted men more than women. While both men and women participated in this study, these investigators recognize the importance of analyzing the data in accordance with sex in future research. In closing, further research is needed to confirm the impact of various caffeine types on sleep. The present study could be expanded in a number of ways. The researchers recommend increasing the number of participants in order to ensure an adequate number of tea drinkers surveyed and/or prescreening participants to incorporate a more accurate sample of tea drinkers. Additionally, future research should explore the timing of caffeine consumption, in order to account for the potential differences in sleep patterns when caffeine is consumed in the morning or at night. Finally, given the findings of Aurora, Caffo, Crainiceanu, & Punjabi (2011), researchers must account for the sex of participants and analyze the differences in the data considering this variable. Future researchers should also use a randomized sample population to ensure generalizability of findings. Researchers who make these modifications will produce more conclusive results when comparing types of caffeine consumed and sleep quantity. 


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References Aurora, R. N., Caffo, B., Crainiceanu, C., & Punjabi, N. (2011). Sleep-disordered breathing and caffeine consumption: Results of a community-based study. Chest , 142(3), 631-638. http://0-dx.doi.org.patris.apu.edu/10.1378/chest. 11-2894 Botton, P. H. S., Pochmann, D., Rocha, A. S., Nunes, F., Almeida, A. S., Marques, D. M., & Porcioncula, L. O. (2017). Aged mice receiving caffeine since adulthood show distinct patterns of anxiety-related behavior. Physiology & Behavior , 170, 47-53. http://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.11.030 Carrier, J., Drapeau, C., Filipini, D., Hamel-Hebert, I., Semlaoui, B., & Robillard, R. (2006). Challenging sleep in aging: The effects of 200 mg of caffeine during the evening in young and middle-aged moderate caffeine consumers. Journal of Sleep Research , 15(2), 133-141. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2006.00518.x Garcia-Blanco, T., Davalos, A., & Visioli, F. (2016). Tea, cocoa, coffee, and affective disorders: vicious or virtuous cycle? Journal of Affective Disorders, n.p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ j.jad.2016.11.033 Hughes, R. N. & Hancock, N. J. (2017). Effects of acute caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in rats chronically exposed to the drug, with some evidence of possible withdrawal-reversal. Behavioural Brain Research , 321, 87-98. http:// doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2016.12.019 Kaya, Y., Kizilkaya, B. N., Aydin, Y., & Hassa, H. (2016). The effect of health-promoting lifestyle education on the treatment of unexplained female infertility. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology , 207, 109-114. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2016.10.050

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References Owens, J. A. & Weiss, M. R. (2014). Insufficient sleep in adolescents: Causes and consequences. Pediatrics , 134(3), 921-932. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-1696 Parodi, S., Merlo, D. F., & Stagnaro, E. (2017). Coffee and tea consumption and risk of leukemia in an adult population: A reanalysis of the Italian multicentre case-control study. Cancer Epidemiology , 47, 81-87. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.canep.2017.01.005 Robson, D. (2016). Tea or coffee: Which drink is better for you? BBC Future . Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/future/ story/20160115-tea-vs-coffee-which-drink-is-better-for-you Smith, M. (2016). Coffee vs. tea: Is one better for your health? Retrieved from http:// www.webmd.com/food-recipes/news/ 20161223/coffee-vs-tea-is-one-better-health#1 Strahler, J. & Nater, U. M. (2017). Differential effects of eating and drinking on wellbeing-An ecological ambulatory assessment study. Biological Psychology, n.p.. http://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2017.01.008 Watson, E. J., Banks, S., Coates, A. M., & Kohler, M. J. (2017). The relationship between caffeine, sleep and behavior in children. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, n.p.. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 28162144

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