advanced fussion reactors

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Advanced Fusion Reactors for Space Propulsion and Power Systems, Designing advanced fusion reactors. Development and design of remountable high temperature superconducitng magnet;.....

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Advanced fuel :

Advanced fuel Magnetic and Inertial Confinement

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Increasing energy costs due to limited availability of fuels with finite deposits. Increasing pollution due to increased economic development and global energy usage Abundant fuel supply - Deuterium can be readily extracted from seawater, and excess tritium can be made in the fusion reactor itself from lithium, which is readily available in the Earth's crust. Uranium for fission is rare, and it must be mined and then enriched for use in reactors. Need of Fusion and Humanity’s Growing Resource Problem

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Physics of Nuclear Fusion: Reactions Deuterium-deuterium reactions Deuterium-tritium reactions

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Conditions for Nuclear fusion High temperature The high temperature gives the hydrogen atoms enough energy to overcome the electrical repulsion between the protons. High pressure Pressure squeezes the hydrogen atoms together. They must be within 1x10-15 meters of each other to fuse . Plasma state

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Fusion Reactors Magnetic confinement uses magnetic and electric fields to heat and squeeze the hydrogen plasma. The ITER project in France is using this method. Inertial confinement uses laser beams or ion beams to squeeze and heat the hydrogen plasma. Scientists are studying this experimental approach at the National Ignition Facility of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in the United States.

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Magnetic confinement Microwaves, electricity and neutral particle beams from accelerates heat a stream of hydrogen gas. This heating turns the gas into plasma. This plasma gets squeezed by super-conducting magnets, thereby allowing fusion to occur. The most efficient shape for the magnetically confined plasma is a donut shape (toroid).

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Main parts of Tokamak Vacuum vessel Neutral beam injector Magnetic field coils Transformers/Central solenoid Cooling equipment Blanket modules Divertors

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Inertial confinement 192 laser beams will focus on single point in a 10-meter-diameter target chamber called a hohlraum. A hohlraum is "a cavity whose walls are in radiative equilibrium with the radiant energy within the cavity“ The fusion reaction will be short-lived, about one-millionth of a second, but will yield 50 to 100 times more energy than is needed to initiate the fusion reaction.

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Advantages of fusion reactors Abundant fuel supply – Deuterium can be readily extracted from seawater, and excess tritium can be made in the fusion reactor itself from lithium, which is readily available in the Earth's crust. Uranium for fission is rare, and it must be mined and then enriched for use in reactors. Safe The amounts of fuel used for fusion are small compared to fission reactors. This is so that uncontrolled releases of energy do not occur. Most fusion reactors make less radiation than the natural background radiation we live with in our daily lives. Clean No combustion occurs in nuclear power (fusion), so there is no air pollution. Less nuclear waste – Fusion reactors will not produce high-level nuclear wastes like their fission counterparts, so disposal will be less of a problem. In addition, the wastes will not be of weapons-grade nuclear materials as is the case in fission reactors.

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Conclusion If accidentally, a fission reaction goes out of control as a result of not controlling the emission of neutrons, a nuclear meltdown can happen which can then release highly radioactive particles in the atmosphere. In contrast, in case of nuclear fusion if the reaction goes out of control, the reaction would stop automatically as it it’ll cool down. In addition, in case of nuclear fusion reaction, the amount of radioactive materials produced as waste is very small and the maximum damage which could happen is the vaporization of anything in the immediate vicinity of the reaction. With regards to these factors it can be said that a fusion reaction is a more environmentally friendly method of producing nuclear power. Energy requirement: It takes less energy to split two atoms with fission than it does to fuse two atoms, which is why fission reactors were developed first, and why fusion reactors have not been developed yet.

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