anticancer drugs of herbal origin

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HERBAL ANTI CANCER DRUGS : 

HERBAL ANTI CANCER DRUGS

DEFINITION : 

DEFINITION CANCER:- Cancer is characterized by rapid and uncontrolled formation of abnormal cells which may mass together to form a growth or tumor, or proliferate throughout the body, initiating abnormal growth at other sites. * ANTI-CANCER DRUGS:- The Drugs that are used in inhibiting the abnormal cell growth or killing the cancer cells.

CLASSIFICATION:- : 

CLASSIFICATION:-

MODE OF ACTION OF NATURAL ANTICANCER DRUGS : : 

MODE OF ACTION OF NATURAL ANTICANCER DRUGS : Purine synthesis Pyrimidine synthesis Ribonucleotides Deoxyribonucleotides DNA RNA Enzymes Proteins Microtubles Camptothecin Etoposide Block topoisomerase functions Paclitaxel Vinca Cholchine Inhibit the function of microtubules

RECENT ADVANCES OF NATURAL ANTICANCER AGENTS:- : 

RECENT ADVANCES OF NATURAL ANTICANCER AGENTS:- 1. Natural agents have low toxicity. 2.The MOA of recent natural agents are * Acts on DNA bases * Intercalation of DNA * Inhibit topoisomerases & Proteinkinases * Induction of Apoptosis (Cell suicide) 3. Many new species are investigated to find out new agents for treatment of cancer. 4.Cell culture techniques are involved to produce new botanical therapeutic agents to treat neoplasms 5. Development of QSAR modelling on anti- cancer agents also produces good therapeutic agents with decreasing toxicity

PLANT-DERIVED ANTICANCER AGENTS IN CLINICAL USE:- : 

PLANT-DERIVED ANTICANCER AGENTS IN CLINICAL USE:- 1. First agents that were clinically used are Vinca alkaloids, Vinblastine(VLB) & Vincristine (VCR), isolated from Madagascar periwinkle. 2. Two clinically active agents, etoposide(VM 26) & teniposide (VP 16-213), semi synthetic derivatives of epipodophyllotoxin are used in cancer treatment. 3. The use of various parts of T.brevifolia and other Taxus species is widely used in caner therapy. 4. Anti-cancer drug armamentarium is the class of clinically- active agents derived from camptothecin, which is isolated from chinese ornamental tree is widely used. 5. Other plant-derived agents in clinical use are homoharringtonine (Cephalotaxus harringtonia) and elliptinium, a derivative of ellipticine, isolated from species of several genera of the Apocynaceae family, including Bleekeria vitensis A.C.Sm.

PLANT-DERIVED ANTICANCER AGENTS IN CLINICAL DEVELOPMENT:- : 

PLANT-DERIVED ANTICANCER AGENTS IN CLINICAL DEVELOPMENT:- 1.Vinblastine/Vincristine: Catharanthus roseus/Jamaica, Philippines (originally from Madagascar) 2. Etoposide: Podophyllum species/ Eastern US, Himalayas 3. Paclitaxel/Docetaxel: Taxus species/NW US, Europe 4. Topotecan/Irinotecan: Camptotheca acuminata/China 5. Homoharringtonine: Cephalotaxus harringtonia/China 6. Flavopiridol: Synthetic based on rohutikine from Dysoxylum binectariferum/India 7. Combretastatins: Combretum caffrum/S. Africa

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Vinblastine Vincristine Vinorelbine Teniposide Irinotecan Docetaxel

Vinca alkaloids : 

B. source: Catharanthus roseus Family: Apocynaceae Part used: Dried whole plant Chemical constituent: Vincristine Vinblastine Ajmalicine Vindesine Vinca alkaloids

Uses of vinca : 

Uses of vinca In Europe, folk remedy for diabetes for centuries. In China, an astringent, diuretic and cough remedy. In Central and South America, homemade cold remedy to ease lung congestion and inflammation and sore throats Throughout the Caribbean, an flower extract to treat eye irritation and infections

MODE OF ACTION OF VINCA : 

These drugs block the formation of mitotic spindle by preventing the assembly of tubulin dimers into microtubules. They act primarily on the M phase of cancer cell cycle. MODE OF ACTION OF VINCA

Podophyllum : 

B. Source: Podophyllum hexandrum Family: Berberidaceae Part used: dried rhizomes & roots Uses: Used in treatment of small cell carcinoma of lung, prostrate and testicular carcinomas Chemical constitutent: Podophyllotoxin Etoposide Teniposide Podophyllum Podophyllotoxin

MOA of Podophyllum : 

Acts by inhibiting topoisomerase II These drugs are most active in late S and early G2 phase MOA of Podophyllum

Taxanes : 

B. source: Taxus brevifolia Family: Taxaceae Part used: Stem bark Uses: Ovarian cancer Lung carcinoma Gastric & Cervical cancers Prostate & colon cancer Chemical constituent: Taxol Paclitaxel Docetaxal Taxanes Taxol

MOA of Taxanes : 

These drugs act by interfering with mitotic spindle They prevent micotubule disassembly into tubulin monomers MOA of Taxanes

Camptothecin : 

B. source: Camptotheca acuminata Family: Nyssaceae Part used: Dried stem wood Uses: Ovarian cancers Colorectal cancer Cancer of neck & head Liver cancer Chemical constituent: Camptothecin Topotecan Irinotecan Camptothecin Camptothecin Topotecan

MOA of Camptothecin : 

Camptothecin act by inhibiting topoisomerase-I MOA of Camptothecin

CONCLUSION : 

Plants have been a prime source of highly effective conventional drugs for the treatment of many forms of cancer. The actual compound isolated from the plant may not serve as the drug but leads to the devlopment of potential novel agents.Natural agents are proving to be an important source of novel inhibitors & have the potential for development into selective anticancer agents. CONCLUSION

THANK YOU : 

THANK YOU