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3.3 The Periodic Table and the Elements:

3.3 The Periodic Table and the Elements Dr. Fred Omega Garces Chemistry 100 Miramar College

The Periodic Table and the Elements:

The Periodic Table and the Elements What is the periodic table ? What information is obtained from the table ? How can elemental properties be predicted base on the PT ?

Dmitri Mendeleev (1869):

Dmitri Mendeleev (1869) In 1869 Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer (Germany) published nearly identical classification schemes for elements known to date. The periodic table is base on the similarity of properties and reactivities exhibited by certain elements. Later, Henri Moseley ( England,1887-1915) established that each elements has a unique atomic number, which is how the current periodic table is organized. http://www.chem.msu.su/eng/misc/mendeleev/welcome.html

The Periodic Table:

The Periodic Table A map of the building block of matter. http://www.chemsoc.org/viselements/pages/periodic_table.html

Periodic Table Expanded View:

Periodic Table Expanded View The way the periodic table usually seen is a compress view, placing the Lanthanides and actinides at the bottom of the stable. The Periodic Table can be arrange by subshells. The s-block is Group IA and & IIA, the p-block is Group IIIA - VIIIA. The d-block is the transition metals, and the f-block are the Lanthanides and Actinide metals

Periodic Table: Metallic arrangement:

Periodic Table: Metallic arrangement Layout of the Periodic Table: Metals vs. nonmetals Metals Nonmetals

Periodic Table: The three broad Classes Main, Transition, Rare Earth:

Periodic Table: The three broad Classes Main, Transition, Rare Earth Main (Representative), Transition metals, lanthanides and actinides (rare earth)

Reading the Periodic Table: Classification:

Reading the Periodic Table: Classification Nonmetals, Metals, Metalloids, Noble gases

Across the Periodic Table:

Across the Periodic Table Periods: Are arranged horizontally across the periodic table (rows 1-7) These elements have the same number of valence shells. 2nd Period 6th Period

Down the Periodic Table:

Down the Periodic Table Family: Are arranged vertically down the periodic table (columns or group, 1- 18 or 1-8 A,B) These elements have the same number electrons in the outer most shells, the valence shell. Alkali Family: 1 e- in the valence shell Halogen Family: 7 e- in the valence shell

Infamous Families of the Periodic Table:

Infamous Families of the Periodic Table Notable families of the Periodic Table and some important members: Alkali Alkaline (earth) Transition Metals Noble Gas Halogen Chalcogens

Important members - the Elements:

Important members - the Elements Individual members of selected Elements & their characteristics H He Li Na K Ca Mg Fe I Cl F P S Si O N C Al Zn Cu Ag Br

Periodic Table e- configuration from the periodic periodic table (To be covered in future chapters):

Periodic Table e - configuration from the periodic periodic table (To be covered in future chapters) B 2p 1 H 1s 1 Li 2s 1 Na 3s 1 K 4s 1 Rb 5s 1 Cs 6s 1 Fr 7s 1 Be 2s 2 Mg 3s 2 Ca 4s 2 Sr 5s 2 Ba 6s 2 Ra 7s 2 Sc 3d 1 Ti 3d 2 V 3d 3 Cr 4s 1 3d 5 Mn 3d 5 Fe 3d 6 Co 3d 7 Ni 3d 8 Zn 3d 10 Cu 4s 1 3d 10 B 2p 1 C 2p 2 N 2p 3 O 2p 4 F 2p 5 Ne 2p 6 He 1s 2 Al 3p 1 Ga 4p 1 In 5p 1 Tl 6p 1 Si 3p 2 Ge 4p 2 Sn 5p 2 Pb 6p 2 P 3p 3 As 4p 3 Sb 5p 3 Bi 6p 3 S 3p 4 Se 4p 4 Te 5p 4 Po 6p 4 Cl 3p 5 Be 4p 5 I 5p 5 At 6p 5 Ar 3p 6 Kr 4p 6 Xe 5p 6 Rn 6p 6 Y 4d 1 La 5d 1 Ac 6d 1 Cd 4d 10 Hg 5d 10 Ag 5s 1 4d 10 Au 6s 1 5d 10 Zr 4d 2 Hf 5d 2 Rf 6d 2 Nb 4d 3 Ta 5d 3 Db 6d 3 Mo 5s 1 4d 5 W 6s 1 5d 5 Sg 7s 1 6d 5 Tc 4d 5 Re 5d 5 Bh 6d 5 Ru 4d 6 Os 5d 6 Hs 6d 6 Rh 4d 7 Ir 5d 7 Mt 6d 7 Ni 4d 8 Ni 5d 8

Periodic Table: electron behavior:

Periodic Table: electron behavior The periodic table can be classified by the behavior of their electrons

2. Trend in Atomic Radius:

2. Trend in Atomic Radius Atomic Radius: The size of at atomic specie as determine by the boundaries of the valence e-. Largest atomic species are those found in the SW corner since these atoms have the largest n, but the smallest Z eff .

3. Trend in Ionization Potential:

3. Trend in Ionization Potential Ionization potential: The energy required to remove the valence electron from an atomic specie. Largest toward NE corner of PT since these atoms hold on to their valence e- the tightest.

4. Trend in Electron Affinity:

4. Trend in Electron Affinity Electron Affinity: The energy release when an electron is added to an atom. Most favorable toward NE corner of PT since these atoms have a great affinity for e-.

Summary of Trend:

Summary of Trend Periodic Table and Periodic Trends 1. Electron Configuration 2. Atomic Radius: Largest toward SW corner of PT 3. Ionization Energy: Largest toward NE of PT 4. Electron Affinity: Most favorable NE of PT

Summary:

Summary Periodic Table : Map of the Building block of matter Type : Metal, metalloid and Nonmetal Groupings: Representative or main, transition and Lanthanide/Actanides Family : Elements in the same column have similar chemical property because of similar valence electrons Alkali, Alkaline, chalcogens, halogens, noble gases Period : Elements in the same row have valence electrons in the same shell.

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