industrial revolution

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The Industrial Revolution

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To navigate this part of the site, click on the title of each page or action buttons if any are present. Directions

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Main Menu Chapter 11 Vocabulary Causes of Industrial Revolution Effects of the Industrial Revolution The Lowell Factories Life During the Industrial Revolution Inventors and Their Inventions New Transportation Methods Henry Clay’s American System The Erie Canal Click to Go back to First Page

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Industrial Revolution 9. Era of Good Feelings Spinning jenny 10. Sectionalism Capital 11. American system Capitalist 12. Internal improvements Factory system 13. Interstate commerce Interchangeable parts 14. Clermont Lowell girl 15. Erie Canal Urbanization 16. National Road Chapter 11 Vocabulary

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A long slow process that changed the way goods were made. Industrial Revolution Click on title to return to chapter 12 vocabulary list

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A machine invented by James Hargreaves in 1764 that could spin several threads at once. Spinning Jenny Click on title to return to chapter 12 vocabulary list

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Another name for money. Capital Click on title to return to chapter 12 vocabulary list

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Is a person who invests in a business in order to make a profit. Capitalist Click on title to return to chapter 12 vocabulary list

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Brought workers and machinery together in one place to produce goods. Factory System Click on title to return to chapter 12 vocabulary list

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Identical, machine-made parts for a tool or instrument . Interchangeable Parts Click on title to return to chapter 12 vocabulary list

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Young women who worked in the Lowell Mills in Massachusetts during the Industrial Revolution . Lowell Girls Click on title to return to chapter 12 vocabulary list

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Process of a population shifting from farms to cities. Urbanization Click on title to return to chapter 12 vocabulary list

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First federally funded national road project, begun in 1811. National Road Click on title to return to vocabulary list National Road

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A steamboat built in 1807 by Robert Fulton. First steamboat to be commercially successful in American waters. Clermont Click on title to return to chapter 12 vocabulary list

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Artificial waterway opened in 1825 linking Lake Erie to the Hudson River. Erie Canal Click on title to return to chapter 12 vocabulary list

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The eight years of James Monroe’s presidency, from 1817 to 1825, when the Democratic Republicans dominated the nation’s politics . Era of Good Feeling Click on title to return to chapter 12 vocabulary list

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Loyalty to a state or section rather than to the whole country . Sectionalism Click on title to return to chapter 12 vocabulary list

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Program for economic growth promoted by Henry Clay in the early 1800s. Called for high tariffs on imports and federal funds to improve transportation. American System Click on title to return to chapter 12 vocabulary list Henry Clay

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Improvements to roads, bridges, and canals. Internal Improvements Click on title to return to chapter 12 vocabulary list

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Trade between states. Interstate Commerce Click on title to return to chapter 12 vocabulary list

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The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain in the mid 1700s when British inventors developed new machines in clothing (textiles) factories. James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny in 1764, which allowed a machine to spin several threads at once. Causes Click on title to return to main menu Spinning Jenny

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Then a new system of producing goods was created called the factory system , which allowed workers and machines to be housed in one building to produce a good. Before this method was used, production was done in the home. Causes Click on title to return to chapter 12 vocabulary list

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Slater brought the secret of the Factory system over from Great Britain in 1789. Great Britain passed a law forbidding anyone from taking plans of the factory system out of Great Britain, so Slater simply memorized the plans and left for the Americas to build a factory of his own. In 1793, he built the first textile (clothing) factory in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Samuel Slater

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The War of 1812 also led to Industrialization in the United States because during the War with Great Britain trading stopped between the two countries. The United States needed to replace the goods we used to buy from Great Britain before the war and to also produce items needed for War. Thus, factories were produced to solve this problem. The War of 1812

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Effects of the Industrial Revolution Click to return to main menu.

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The movement of people from farms to cities. In 1800 most Americans lived in rural, or country areas. During the Industrial Revolution that changed. New Farming equipment replaced manual labor and people started to move to cities for jobs where there was factories. Urbanization

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The growth of cities caused problems. Poor sanitation. No sewers. Waste was thrown onto the streets Crime Disease from poor sanitation conditions Poor housing conditions. Hazards

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New forms of entertainment began in cities to attract people. Museums Theaters stores New Attractions

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Life During the Industrial Revolution

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Children as young as seven worked both in the factories and on farms. They were paid less than women or men. Children called doffers worked in factories changing equipment on machines when needed. This was very dangerous and many children were serious hurt on the job. Child Labor

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Workers in factories worked as many as 12 hours a Day, six days a week. Long Hours

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The Industrial Revolution led to more family members going to work. Women in poorer families often went to work at factories to help support the family. The same with children. Changes in Home Life

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The Lowell Factories

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Factory was located in Lowell, Massachusetts. Town was named after it’s founder, Francis Cabot Lowell. Location

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The Lowell Mills were an entire town that had more than 10,000 workers. Most were young girls called “Lowell Girls”. They were hired for a few years and given room and board. The Lowell Mills

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Inventors and Their Inventions Inventors and Famous Inventions John Deere Robert Fulton Samuel Morse Eli Whitney Samuel Slater's Mill (Click on Pictures) James Hargreave's "Spinning Jenny"

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Invented the Spinning Jenny in 1764. This machine could spin several threads of cloth at once. James Hargreaves

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Built a loom powered by water in 1780. This water loom could spin even more cloth than the spinning jenny. Edmund Cartwright

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Brought the factory system to America in 1789 and built the first factory in the United States in 1793. Now workers and equipment could be placed under one roof to produce goods faster and cheaper than ever before. Samuel Slater

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Eli Whitney came up with two inventions. They were Interchangeable Parts and the Cotton Gin. Eli Whitney

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Interchangeable parts are identical, machine-made parts for a tool or instrument. Eli Whitney used this concept to make muskets for the army. Before interchangeable parts, individual gunsmiths would make the parts for muskets. If the part broke it was very difficult to replace, because the parts were handmade. Now the parts could be replaced quickly because all parts for guns could be made identically. This concept was soon adapted by manufacturers for all sorts of other goods. Interchangeable Parts

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Invented in 1793, the cotton gin could clean the seeds from cotton faster than by hand. This led to a boom in cotton production in the south, which became known as the Cotton Kingdom. Cotton Gin

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Invented a light weight steel plow in 1825. John Deere

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Invented the telegraph in 1844. Soon news could be sent across the country using Morse code. Samuel B. Morse Morse Code

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Invented the first successful steamboat line in 1807. His ship the Clermont sailed from New York City to Albany and back in 62 hours. A record at that time. Goods could know be moved quicker and cheaper than ever before. Robert Fulton

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In the Early 1800s, new transportation methods were being developed that could get goods and people to distant places faster and cheaper than ever before. New Transportation Methods Railroads

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Invented the first successful steamboat line in 1807. His ship the Clermont sailed from New York City to Albany and back in 62 hours. A record at that time. Goods could know be moved quicker and cheaper than ever before Steamboat

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Man made waterways were constructed all over the Northeast to get goods to west and east. One canal that was built between the years 1817-1825 was the Erie Canal. Canals

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Improved roads were being built to link the east and west. That way farmers good send there crops to the east to be sold and manufacturers could send their goods to the west, too. The first national road was completed in 1818 and linked Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, western Virginia. Roads

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Railroads would eventually replace the canal. By 1869 the first transcontinental railroad was completed connecting the Atlantic Coast to the Pacific Coast. Railroads

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Henry Clay of Kentucky was responsible for this new push in transportation lines. His Plan as called the American System and his idea was to improve the infrastructure of the United States so Northern States good send their manufactured goods to farmers in the West and South. In addition, the farmers in the West and South could send their crops north to be sold. Thus, a trade network would be established that would benefit the entire nation. Henry Clay's American System Henry Clay

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Built between the years 1817-1825. Linked Buffalo to Albany, New York. Provided a faster means of transportation for farmers in Western New York to get crops and livestock to Albany and then to New York City via steamboats on the Hudson River. The Erie Canal

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The cities of Rome, Utica and Syracuse soon emerged along the route of the canal. The Erie Canal

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Built between the years 1817-1825. Linked Buffalo to Albany, New York. Provided a faster means of transportation for farmers in Western New York to get crops and livestock to Albany and then to New York City via steamboats on the Hudson River. The Erie Canal

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The cities of Rome, Utica and Syracuse soon emerged along the route of the canal. The Erie Canal

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