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Srinivas Rao . Radiology Technologist . Khorfakkhan Hospital. Radiation protections for Radiographer


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RADIATION PROTECTION G.SRINIVAS RAO Radiology Technologist Department of Radiology Khorfakkan Hospital


Radiation Radiation is a form of energy. It can come from unstable atoms – enviornment or it can be produced by machines – Xray unit Radiation travels from its source in the form of energy waves or energized particles.

Back Ground Radiation:

Back Ground Radiation Back Ground Radiation : Radiation that is naturally present in the environment is called Back ground radiation. We are continually exposed to back ground radiation.

Back Ground Radiation:

Back Ground Radiation Back Ground Radiation are of 2 Types 1. Natural Radiation 82% 2. Man made Radiation 18%

Natural Radiation:

Natural Radiation

Man made Radiation:

Man made Radiation

Background radiation:

Background radiation

Types of Radiation:

Types of Radiation Non ionizing Radiation : Radiation that does not have sufficient energy to dislodge orbital electrons. Examples microwaves ,ultraviolet light, lasers , radiowaves , infrared light. Ionizing Radiation : Radiation that has sufficient energy to dislodge orbital electrons. Examples Alpha particles , Beta , Gamma and X-Rays.

Ionizing Radiation:

Ionizing Radiation Ionizing Radiation occurs from the addition or removal of electrons from neutral atoms. Five main types of Ionizing radiation. 1. Alpha 2. Beta 3. X-Rays 4. Gamma 5. Neutrons

Types of Radiation:

Types of Radiation

Ionizing Radiation:

Ionizing Radiation



Biological effects of radiation:

Biological effects of radiation Radiation can damage living tissue by changing cell structure and damaging DNA. The amount of damage depends upon - How much - How fast Type of radiation Energy of radiation Total amount of radiation absorbed.

Biological effects of Radiation:

Some cells are more sensitive to radiation than the other. Young Rapid growing cells are more sensitive to the radiation than mature cells. Biological effects of Radiation

Radiosensitive - organs:

Radiosensitive - organs

Biological effects of Radiation:

Acute High dose received in a short period Chronic Low doses received over a long period Biological effects of Radiation

Biological effects of Radiation:

Biological effects of Radiation Radiation - Sequence of events Deposit energy in body Create Ionization in body Leading to free Radicals Which may lead to biological damage Cause DNA damage H 2 O + radiation H 2 o + e H 2 O decomposes H + OH + - + +

Radiation Effects on cells:

Radiation Effects on cells Radio Sensitivity theory of Bergonie & Tribon deau states that. Cell are radiosensitive if they. 1. Have a high division rate 2. Have a long dividing future 3. Are of an unspecialized type



Basic principles of Radiation Protection:

Basic principles of Radiation Protection 1. Justification of practices 2. Optimization of protection by keeping Exposure A s L ow A s R easonable A chievable A L A R A 3. Dose Limits for occupational exposure.


Justification Radiation produce harmful biological effects. Use of radiation has to be justified and minimized for patient, co-worker and members of public. Investigation of disease and treatment must out weigh the risk of possible harmful effects. RISK VS BENEFIT JUSTIFICATION




ALARA As Low As Reasonably Achievable How ? Time Distance Shielding Why ? To Minimize Radiation Dose


Less time = Less Radiation Exposure Time:

Time :

Time Technique: Least possible Exposure Time to be selected on the machine. High k.V technique. Protocols according to anatomical part with least radiation.


Distance Effective & Easy Inverse Square Law Doubling distance from source decreases dose by factor of four Tripling it decreases dose nine fold More Distance = Less Radiation Exposure

Distance: Inverse square law:

Distance: Inverse square law


Shielding Materials “absorb” radiation – Lead Proper shielding= Less Radiation Exposure Use lead shielding devices Personnel protective Garments Lead aprons Thyroid collar Lead goggles Gonad shield Lead gloves etc.



Use lead shields:

Use lead shields

ALARA -Practical application:

ALARA -Practical application Justification of Every single Radiological investigation. Understand and apply the 3 cardinal principles of Radiation protection . Time ,Distance , Shielding 1. Never stand in the primary beam 2. Always wear protective apparel when not behind a protective barrier 3. Always wear a radiation monitor and position it outside the protective apron at collar level.

ALARA -Practical application:

ALARA -Practical application 4.Never hold a patient during radiographic examination. Use mechanical restraining Devices when possible. Other wise use Patient relatives or friend to hold the patient-Care giver. 5. The care giver must wear Protective apron and if possible lead gloves. 6. Use gonad shield on all patients of child bearing age -when it will not interfere with the examination.

ALARA -Practical application:

ALARA -Practical application 7. Position the care giver as far away from the primary beam as possible. 8.If care giver is a a female- make sure she is not pregnant.

Scatter radiation:

Scatter radiation

Scatter radiation:

Scatter radiation

Scatter radiation:

Scatter radiation

Scatter radiation:

Scatter radiation



Patient holding:

Patient holding Radiology technologist should not hold a patient for X-ray Examination - family or friend may be called upon to assist the patient- care giver . The person assisting the patient must wear a lead apron and away from the primary beam.

Dose limits – ICRP whole body:

Dose limits – ICRP whole body OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE 20 mSV per year public EXPOSURE 1 mSV per year 50 mSV maximum in any 1 year 5 mSV in any 5 consecutive years 100 mSV in 5 years -

Biological effects of radiation:

Biological effects of radiation

Occupational radiation monitoring:

Occupational radiation monitoring Occupational radiation monitoring offers no protection against exposure , it merely records the exposure received. Types of Monitors Film Badges TLD

Film Badges:

Film Badges Used since 1940 - still used today. Exposure below 10mR are not measured on the film. They must be worn with proper side to the front. They are typically worn on the collar. So they would remain outside the lead apron.


TLD TLD has several advantages over film badges. Not sensitive to heat or humidity Measure exposure to 5mR more sensitive Accurate Can be changed quarterly instead of monthly.

What providers can do?:

What providers can do? Become “ dose aware” - Education Lectures web sites - www.acr.org , www.imagegently , www.image wisely. Appropriate utilization Utilize Radiologist, R.S.O ( Radiation safety officer) and Radiographer as resources.

TLD reading Radiology Dept:

TLD reading Radiology Dept W.B.Dose mSv Skin Dose( mSv ) Name 0.523 0.612 Almas 0.417 0.423 Awatef 0.560 0.524 Daniel 0.414 0.439 Dr Aida 0.381 0.396 Dr Binu 0.382 0.406 Fatima 0.519 0.555 Flora 0.574 0.561 George 0.453 0.508 Henry 0.324 0.293 Sebastian 0.477 0.417 Mariam 0.570 0.546 Rao

Radiation SYMBOL:

Radiation SYMBOL

Portable X-ray unit …………………………………Don’t Run Help Technologist…………………… to get good quality images :

Portable X-ray unit …………………………………Don’t Run Help Technologist…………………… to get good quality images Your Co- Operation Our Success



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