Ayurveda

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The Connection Between Horticulture and Medicine :

The Connection Between Horticulture and Medicine The prehistoric discovery that certain plants cause harm and others have curative powers is the origin of the healing professions and its practitioners (priest, physician, and apothecary), as well as professions devoted to plants (botany and horticulture). Herbal: A book about useful plants, especially medicinals

The Connection Between Horticulture and Medicine :

The Connection Between Horticulture and Medicine Dr.M.Srinivas Naik M.D. Ayu Dr.M.Vijaya Lakshmi MBBS

Herbals of Antiquity:

Herbals of Antiquity Source Herbal Century Comments Egyptian Ebers Papyrus 15 th BCE Medical treatise, 811 prescriptions Hellenic Diocles of Carystus 4 th BCE Lost ms Theophrastus Historia de Plantes De Causis Plantarum 4 th BCE Botanical treatice Crateuas 1 st BCE Lost illustrated ms, Phys. To Mithridites

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Perfuming embalmed body with fragrant spices

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A visual representation of the fragrance from essential oils being extracted from an herb. Source: J. Janick photo.

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Gathering lilies for their perfume. Source: Singer et al., 1954, Fig. 189.

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Perfume and Cosmetics Expressing oil of lily. Source: Singer et al., 1954.

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Transporting myrrh, Queen Hatshepsut’s expedition

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Compounding Ointments and Perfume

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The Ebers Papyrus in Hieratic script. 1530 BCE .

Ebers Papyrus Remedies:

Ebers Papyrus Remedies Remedy to clear out the body and to get rid of the excrement in the body of a person. Berries of the castor-oil tree Chew and swallow down with beer in order to clear out all that is in the body.

Ebers Papyrus Remedies:

Ebers Papyrus Remedies Pods of the poppy plant (Opium) Fly dirt which is on the wall Make into one, strain, and take for four days. It Acts At Once! Remedy to stop a crying of a child

Ebers Papyrus Remedies:

Ebers Papyrus Remedies Leaves of the castor oil plant (1/4) Dates of the male palm (5/6) Cyperus grass (1/16) Stalk of the poppy plant (1/16) Coriander (1/16) Cold beer (1/2) (Note: Quantities do not add up) Keep moist, strain, and take for four days. Another Remedy for the Body

Herbals of Antiquity:

Herbals of Antiquity Source Herbal Century Comments Roman Pliny Historia Naturalis 1 st CE Compilation Dioscorides De Materia Medica 1 st CE 6 th century copy extant Juliana Anicia codex Herbal of Apuleis 4 th CE Derived from Pliny & Dioscorides Chinese Pen Ts’ao Ching The Classic Herbal 1 st CE Refers to 27 th century BCE Indian Charaka 1 st CE Susruta 2 nd CE Aztec De la Cruz-Badiano Herbal 1522 CE

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Dioscorides from title page of Gerarde’s Herball (1633), 2nd edition. Dioscorides from title page of Brunfel’s Herbarium Vivae Eicones , 1530.

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Scene traced by Singer (1928) Pedaniius Dioscorides (ca 20–70 CE ). Dioscorides receiving mandrake from the nymph Epinoia (Discovery) for Krateuas to paint. From Juliana Anicia Codex 1512.

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Scene drawn by Martha Breen (Bredemeyer) in D’Andrea (1982)

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Genealogy of Dioscoridian texts (after Singer)

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Images from Dioscorides. Cowpea

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Images from Dioscorides. Ferula

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Lady’s bedstraw ( Galium ), Cranesbill ( Erodium ), and Geranium .

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Winter Cherry ( Physalis ) and Mulleins ( Verbascum ). Codex Neopolitanus , 7th century.

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Papaver erraticum [which some call Oxytonum, ye Romans Papaveralis, ye Egyptians Nanti] is so called because it quickly casteth away ye flower; it grows in fields in ye spring, at what time also it is gathered. Ye leaves are like to Origanum, or to Eruca, or to Cichory, or Thyme, jagged, but longer, and rough; but a downy stalk, straight, rough, as of a cubits height: ye flower purple, & sometimes also white, like to that of Anemone ye wild: ye head somewhat long, yet somewhat less than that of Anemone: ye seed red: ye root somewhat long, whitish, having ye thickness of a little finger & bitter. 64. Mekon Roias. Papaver Rhoeas Source: The Greek herbal of Dioscorides.

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Having sod 5 or 6 little heads of this with three Cyathi of wine, to bring it as to two, give it to drink to such as you would make sleep. As much as an acetabulum of ye seed being drank with Melicrate, doth soften ye belly gently. It is mixed also with honeyed confections & cakes for ye same purpose. But ye leaves being laid on together with ye heads doe heal inflammations. But ye decoction of them being fomented, or sprinkled on, is soporiferous.

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[the Romans call it Eruca, ye Aegyptians Ethrekicen, the Africans Asuric] This being eaten raw in any great quantitie doth provoke Venery, and the seed of it also doth work ye like effect, being vreticall and digestiue, & good for ye belly. They doe also use the seed of it in making of sawces, which that it may endure the longer, hauing macerated it first in vinegar, or milke, making it into Trochiscks, they afterward lay it up in store. There also grows a wild Eruca, especially in Iberia towards ye west, whose seed the men there doe use instead of Mustard. It is more diureticall, & farre sharper then the Satiue. 170. Euzomon. Eruca sativa Rocket Source: The Greek herbal of Dioscorides.

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Rhizotomists gathering herbs ( Apuleius Platonicus herbal ca. 1200 CE ).

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The interior of a pharmacy as represented in a manuscript of Treatise on Medicine by Dioscorides. (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)

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The preparation of an aromatic wine to treat coughs; from an Arabic translation of Treatise on Medicine by Dioscorides. (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York)

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This miniature in an Arabic manuscript of the early 13th century depicts the preparation of drugs. A liquid remedy is being mixed over a fire in the open air, where flora and fauna symbolize the pharmaceutical bounty of nature. The bearded figure (right) holds out an ornate ceramic drug container. Manuscript was based on Galen’s treatise concerning electuaries (lozenges).

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Preparation of theriac, a complex antidote that Galen’s recommendation helped to raise to the level of an internationally renowned panacea. Compounders measure ingredients from drug containers while assistants obtain supplies of crude drugs. (Miniature from ms. in Austrian National Library, Vienna; reproduced from Zekert, O.: Chem. and Druggist 120:728, 1934)

Medieval Herbals:

Medieval Herbals Source Herbal Date Comments German Hildegarde of Bingen Physica 1098-1179 CE Woman mystic Albertus Magnus On Plants 1206-1280 Saint, Dominican

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1. First book in which woman discusses plants in relation to medical properties. Emphasis on medicine, includes recipes, diseases, cures, folk remedies. 2. Earliest book on natural history in Germany; influenced German Fathers of Botany 3. Strongly concerned with science in contrast to other mystical and theological works 4. Lists plants not translatable into Latin and thus first mention of German name Herbal Notes Physica (Hidegarde of Bingin)

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Albertus Magnus (1193–1280).

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1. Scholastic philosopher 2. St Thomas Aquinas one of his pupils 3. Worked on morphology, distinguishes between thorns (stem structures) and prickles (surface organs) 4. “The plant is a living being, and its life principle is the vegetable soul, whose function is limited to nourishment, growth and reproduction – feeling, desire, sleep, and sexuality, properly so called, being unknown in the plant world.” 5. Felt that species were mutable, pointed out that cultivated plants might run wild and become degenerate while wild plants might be domesticated. 6. Temperate tone on medical virtues On Plants (Albertus Magnus) = Albert of Bollstadt (1193-1280)

Slide 37:

Plague doctor with spice filled beak

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1547 Garden Source: Crisp, XLII.

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1587 Garden Source: Crisp, XLIII.

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Herbalist garden & Store Room Source: Crisp, XLI.

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European herb garden

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Herbalists’ Symbols

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Medicinal plants based on the “Doctrine of Signatures” in Porta’s Phytognomonica. Heart plants include peaches, citrons and bulbous roots. Plants for scaly diseases include pine cones, thistles, catkins, and lily bulbs. The snake and fish were added to show scalyskin.

Printed Herbals:

Printed Herbals Source Herbal Date Comments Italian Mattioli Commentarii 1544 Commentary on Dioscorides German Hieronymus Brunschwig Das Bush zu Distillieren 1500 Distillation Otto Brunfels Herbarium Vivae Eicones 1530, 1532, 1536 Known for illustration Jerome Bock Kreuter Buch 1542 Scientific Leonhart Fuchs De Historia Stirpium 1542 Scholarly

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Pier Andrea Mattioli, 1501–1577. Portrait from the first Bohemian edition of Commentarii . (on Dioscorides). The motto nec igne, nec ferro (neither fire nor iron) refers to his preference for medication over surgery.

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1. Famous herbal, many translations, at least 45 editions 2. First published 1544 3. Exposition of Dioscorides but includes all plants known to Mattioli 4. Later editions had beautiful figures 5. Did not have an expert knowledge of plants Commentarii of Mattioli

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Woodblock print of pear. Woodblock print of apple.

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Woodblock print of Psyllium .

Printed Herbals:

Printed Herbals Source Herbal Date Comments Italian Mattioli Commentarii 1544 Commentary on Dioscorides German Hieronymus Brunschwig Das Bush zu Distillieren 1500 Distillation Otto Brunfels Herbarium Vivae Eicones 1530, 1532, 1536 Known for illustration Jerome Bock Kreuter Buch 1542 Scientific Leonhart Fuchs De Historia Stirpium 1542 Scholarly

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Heironymus Brunschwig’s frontispiece for Das Buch zu Distillieren 1500.

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Otto Brunfels (1468-1534)

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1. Modern age of botany began in 1530 with Living Images of Plants 2. Realistic and beautiful plant pictures, unequaled by Hans von Weiditz 3. Sequence based on when illustrations completed thus nonscientific 4. Watercolors recently founds in in 1930s. 5. Text inferior to pictures, bookish Herbarium Vivae Icones of Otto Brunfels

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Herbarium Vivae Eicones frontpiece, 1530.

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Image of Anemone pulsatilla , showing the advance in drawing.

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Hieronymus (Jerome) Bock or Tragus 1498–1554. Author of Kreuter Buch , 1551.

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Book discusses characteristics of plants in Germany; a new directions and thus a truly modern work. 1. Developed system of botany, arranged plants into categories 2. Wrote in a clear manner, understandable to laymen. Listed mode of occurrence and localities for plants mentioned. Thus a kind of Flora. Seems to have been a keen collector. Free from credulity. 3. Later editions supplied with pictures from Brunfels and Fuchs 4. Written in German 5. 1539 New Kreuterbuch later Kreuter Buch Kreuter Buch of Jerome Boch

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Leonhart Fuchs (1501–1566).

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1. Interested in bringing reforms in German medicine 2. Careful matching figures with illustrations 3. Indices; in Greek, Latin, traditional herbal names, and German 4. Used masculine and feminine terminology for stronger and weaker 5. Good illustrations done under the supervision of Fuchs 6. First mention of maize De Historia Stirpium of Leonhard Fuchs (Stirpium = plants)

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From De Historia Stirpium . Veit Rudolf Speckle Heinrich Fullmaurer Albrecht Meyer Engraver Illustrators

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The first woodcut of maize called “Turckish korn” from De Historia Stirpium 1542.

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Asparagus Source: Fuchs.

Printed Herbals:

Printed Herbals Source Herbal Date Comments Flemish Rembert Dodoens Cruydeboech 1554 Charles de l’Eschuse Histoire de Plantes 1557 French transl. of Cruydeboeck Matthias de l’ Obel Stirpium Adversaria Nova 1570

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Rembert Dodoens, 1517–1585.

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1. Continued traditions established by Bock of investigation local flora and realized that plants of Europe were not all described by the ancients. 2. Books of Dodoens Clusius, and Obel are interrelated 3. Studies plants of the Netherlands 4. Cruydeboeck , 1554, basis for other works…eventually Stirpium historiae en pemptades sex . Folio volume of 900 pages, 1309 woodcuts, six copies from Juliana Acicia codex. Borrowed from woodcuts used for Fuchs. 5. Condemned Doctrine of Signatures 6. Basis of Nievve Herbal of Henry Lyte in 1578. Cruydeboeck (Dodoens)

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Source: Dodoens Crôÿdeboeck Potato (Solanum tuberasum)

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Frontispiece of Crôÿdeboeck , 1554. The French translation was published in English, 1578, under the title of A Nievve Herbal by Henry Lyte.1578 .

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Charles de L’Escluse (L’Ecluse) 1526–1609.

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1. Studies plants of Austria, Hungary, and Spain. 2. Great powers of observation, added 600 known plants 3. French translation of Cruydeboeck 4. Interested in plants for their own sake; not preoccupied with medical side of plants. Histoire des Plantes 1557 (L’Ecluse=Clusius)

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Mathias de L’Obel (1538–1616).

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1. Studies plants of Southern France 2. Main work Stirpium Adversaria Nova published in 1570 with Pena. 3. Distinguishes plants by leaves. Stirpium Adversaria Nova (Mathias de l’Obel)

Printed Herbals:

Printed Herbals Source Herbal Date Comments English Henry Lyte Neivve Herbal 1529-1566 Trans. Dodoen’s Cruydeboech William Turner Herball 1551, 1562, 1568 John Gerard Herball 1597, 1633 2 nd ed. Nicholas Culpeper The English Physitian 1652 Astrological botany

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The Grete Herball of 1526.

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1. Based on the French version of Dodoens’ Cruydeboeck of 1554 made by l’Ecluse in 1557. 2. No mere mechanical translation but work is annotated and corrected with references to l’Obel and Turner. Nievve Herball Henry Lyte

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Lyte’s A Nievve Herball .

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1. Figures of Fuchs. 2. Independent thinker, scorned superstition 3. Respectful of Ancients but not slavish 4. Father of English Botany Herball (William Turner) 1st part in 1551 (London), 2nd in 1562 (Cologne), 3rd in 1568.

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John Gerard 1597

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Title page Gerard’s Herball, 1597.

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1. Most famous English herbal 2. 1636 edition augmented by Thomas Johnston Herball John Gerard(e)

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“Although my paines have not been spent (Curteous Reader) in the gracious discoverie of golden mines, nor in the tracing after silver veines, whereby my native country might be enriched with such merchandise as it hath most in request and admiration: yet hath my labour (I trust) been otherwise profitably employed, in descrying of such a harmlesse treasure of herbes, trees, and plants, as the earth frankely without violence offereth unto our most necessarie uses.” Gerard(e)’s Preface

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Frontispiece of The Herball of John Gerarde , 2nd ed. by Thomas Johnson. 1633.

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Maize and Sweet Corn.

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Nicholas Culpeper 1616-1654, astrologer botanist. ( Codex Neopolitanus , 7th century.)

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1. Absurdities initiated reforms, but many editions. 2. Refers to Doctors: A company of proud insulting, domineering Doctors, whose wits were born above 500 years before themselves. A Physical Directory (translation) (Nicolas Culpeper)

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Culpeper believed that every disease was caused by a planet and that in order to effect a cure a herb belonging to an opposing planet must be used. He also held the view that cures could sometimes be made by “sympathy,” this is by the use of herbs under the dominion of the planet responsible for the disease, “ every planet cures his own disease” he wrote “as the sun and moon by their herbs cure the eyes, Saturn and spleen, Jupiter the liver, Mars the gall, and diseases of choller ” Blanche Henrey, 1975). Culpeper was immensely popular up the 19 th century and is still quoted by the credulous.

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CONCLUSIONS Herbal cures in the past vary from sensible, ineffective, ridiculous, to harmful. While we smile at the outrageous claims of the herbalist, it is a fact that drugs derived from plants still remain the basis for much of modern medicine. The modern trend is to discover the active ingredient and synthesize variations or permutations of the efficacious molecules. Unfortunately pharmaceutical companies are not interested in botanicals as such because they cannot be protected by patent. The recent interested in herbs as cures or inducers of “wellness” is now a prominent part of alternate medicine and has led to a revival of interest in the old herbals.

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Some of the ancient herbs have been resurrected, and in many cases new benefits have been claimed. These include Echinacea , approved in Germany for supportive therapy for colds and chronic infections of the respiratory tract and lower urinary tract, ginseng as a tonic and “adoptogen,” and St. John’s wort for mild depression. The reader is advised to be cautious and pursue a common sense to herbal medicine. An authoritative review of herbal medicine can be found in The Honest Herbal: A Sensible Guide to Herbs and Related Remedies by Varro E. Tyler (1981). CONCLUSIONS

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Early 17 th century notes found on the back of Gerard’s 1597 herbal.

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Parthnut sine Albocastanon pag: 906 Against ye Plauge, Ague, passion of ye stomacke and surfets Celandine. Rosemarie, Sage, Bawms, Mugword, Rue, Wormwoode, Draggons, Scabious, Pimpernall, Egremoine, Angellica, Betony,

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[equal amounts lbs by 6 [ounce] ???]. Put all these things together 3 nights, stopping it close with all these things in an ordinarie still, but not in a Limbseck: Glass and keep it for your use. with a narrowe mouth letting (th)em soake in white wine 3 dayes &

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infected blood warme, walking uppon it if he be able, or else Give ye patient 10 spoonfulls hereof when he feeles himselfe first forced to walke between two men; then put him into a warm bed if he vomit it is ye better, if it be possible, give him this liquore

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before he sleep after he is infected. The elder this water is ye better; this water must stilled in May. You must still rest may run together.

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Parthnut sine Albocastanon pag: 906 Against ye Plauge, Ague, passion of ye stomacke and surfets Celandine. Rosemarie, Sage, Bawms, Mugword, Rue, Wormwoode, Draggons, Scabious, Pimpernall, Egremoine, Angellica, Betony, [equal amounts lbs by 6 [ounce] ???]. Put all these things together 3 nights, stopping it close with all these things in an ordinarie still, but not in a Limbseck: Glass and keep it for your use. Give ye patient 10 spoonfulls hereof when he feeles himselfe first infected blood warme, walking uppon it if he be able, or else forced to walke between two men; then put him into a warm bed if he vomit it is ye better, if it be possible, give him this liquore before he sleep after he is infected. The elder this water is ye better; this water must stilled in May. You must still rest may run together.

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eise laying a six or 7 fold pledget all night over your ffor [For] Sore eise [eyes] Rx One pinte of milke, a little rock allome, boyle it to a crud, straine ye crud from the whaie, drop it into your eise and temples.

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ffor [For] Sore eise [eyes] Rx One pinte of milke, a little rock allome, boyle it to a crud, straine ye crud from the whaie, drop it into your eise laying a six or 7 fold pledget all night over your eise and temples.

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Another for ye same Rs Divells bit is good for ye teeth. See page 587. a little fine white sugar dropping at night in your eise. Rx Wood sorrell stamp & strains it mixing ye clove with

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Another for ye same Rx Wood sorrell stamp & strains it mixing ye clove with a little fine white sugar dropping at night in your eise. Rs Divells bit is good for ye teeth. See page 587.

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Rx Take one Handfull of Maiden Hair, of Pillatory of the ffor (For) the Stone Handfull of Lovage, a Quarter of a Handull of palm ‘ Wall, white Burridge of Dock one Handful – a Quarter of a

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And a pint of Cyder, putting in a pound of Brazill Sugar and, And pound them and Boyl it in a Quart of White Wine Half a Quarter of a pound of Dates, stone them (and) pound the Christi or Christ’s Hand, and Half Handfull of wild Hyssop - Cut these herbs

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Dros Scordium, mixing it therewith, Drink some of it Now and Then. After it Boiled high, half an hour put in half an ounce of Stones and Boyle them with ye soft of ye Dates; in ye wine (and)

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ffor (For) the Stone Rx Take one Handfull of Maiden Hair, of Pillatory of the Wall, white Burridge of Dock one Handful-a Quarter of a Handfull of Lovage, a Quarter of a Handull of palm Christi or Christ’s Hand, and Half Handfull of wild Hyssop-Cut these herbs And pound them and Boyl it in a Quart of White Wine And a pint of Cyder, putting in a pound of Brazill Sugar and, Half a Quarter of a pound of Dates, stone them (and) pound the Stones and Boyle them with ye soft of ye Dates; in ye wine (and) After it Boiled high, half an hour put in half an ounce of Dros Scordium, mixing it therewith, Drink some of it Now and Then.

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Rx Take a pint and half of the bert Canary wine and one Dram of Ffor (For) Melansoly (Melancholy) and Oppression of the heart English Saffron and one handfull of the leaves (flowers) of Marygold, Greene Probut (?)

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a stone jugg of a quart and put all these ingreddients therein and stopp or Dry but green are best and one handfull of Balm oile Bawms; (Then take ?) of water a soaking for twelve hours, take it out and let it stand tile it, close with paste that no steam may come out and then put it into a pot

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dissolve it Take four spoonfulls at a time as long as it lasteth and put it into a glass bottle. Then put as much loaf sugar as will cold before you open it, then strain it off and wring it very hard give ye morning an hour after dinner and a little before going

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go to Bed and after the syrrup is (gone) you may make more will Comfor you and make you healthy. ye heart opprest at any time take 4 spoonfulls if it and it after ye same manor and keep it by you and if you feel

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Probut (?) Ffor (For) Melansoly (Melancholy) and Oppression of the heart Rx Take a pint and half of the bert Canary wine and one Dram of English Saffron and one handfull of the leaves (flowers) of Marygold, Greene or Dry but green are best and one handfull of Balm oile Bawms; (Then take ?) a stone jugg of a quart and put all these ingreddients therein and stopp it, close with paste that no steam may come out and then put it into a pot of water a soaking for twelve hours, take it out and let it stand tile cold before you open it, then strain it off and wring it very hard and put it into a glass bottle. Then put as much loaf sugar as will dissolve it Take four spoonfulls at a time as long as it lasteth give ye morning an hour after dinner and a little before going go to Bed and after the syrrup is (gone) you may make more after ye same manor and keep it by you and if you feel ye heart opprest at any time take 4 spoonfulls if it and it will Comfor you and make you healthy.

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Rx An Excellent Bruise Oile Horehound and ffetherfew, of each a Handfull—of wormwwod a half- or CatMiont, of Muwwort of Sourthernwood or Boys love, - Camomil- Take a Handfull of ye Herb Motherwort of Nimph Royall

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very small (some pound them) overnight andThen take a pint of handfull and of Rue a good Half-handfull—Shred These Herbe Boile it over a Gentle fire Altogether for a Quarter of an oile and a pint of good Brandy (Rather more oyl than Brandy).

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It is very good for all Bruises (and) Strayns and Sprains (or?) Hour and thereabouts, Then strayn it and keep it for use. and for the Histeria if applied to the stomach.

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Rx An Excellent Bruise Oile Take a Handfull of ye Herb Motherwort of Nimph Royall or CatMiont, of Muwwort of Sourthernwood or Boys love, -Camomil- Horehound and ffetherfew, of each a Handfull-of wormwwod a half- handfull and of Rue a good Half-handfull-Shred These Herbe very small (some pound them) overnight andThen take a pint of oile and a pint of good Brandy (Rather more oyl than Brandy). Boile it over a Gentle fire Altogether for a Quarter of an Hour and thereabouts, Then strayn it and keep it for use. It is very good for all Bruises (and) Strayns and Sprains (or?) and for the Histeria if applied to the stomach.

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Title page from John Parkinson, Theatricum Botanicum, 1640, woodcut In this illustrated botanical, John Parkinson defined the world as an abundant garden. The linked allegorical images in the title-page woodcut suggest this sphere of knowledge, presided over by Adam, caretaker of the first garden, and Solomon, the monarch of wisdom. Personifications of the four known continents - Asia, Africa, Europe, and America - feature the flora and fauna that distinguish these individual realms. America, seen in the lower right corner, holds aloft a bow and arrow, Dressed only in a skirt of feathers, she rides a llamalike creature through a landscape dotted with cactus, hedgehog thistle, and passion flowers. Looming above these exotic species are two giant sunflowers.

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