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Slide 2:

In an individual scientific survey conducted by a Research Foundation,It was found that the mercurial formulations have shown more safety & efficacy in clinical practice in comparison with herbal formulations. The survey recorded the results over a period of two years of time. For Mercurial pharmaceutics have an in-built safety mechanism in processing and dispensing methods. The formulation includes the consideration of the pharmacology of the drug to suit particular therapy. And the selectivity of the genuine sample for which the characters are clearly delineated in the texts . The processing can be divided into 3stages:- viz., Pre- processing, Processing and Post -processing.

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PRE-PROCESSING includes collection of material & purification. The purification which is general for alleviating the physical & chemical impurities can be deployed for the all purposes while the specific one is therapeutic need based. Mitigating the blemishes of the samples starts from this stage itself. The changes that takes place in the purified samples Getting rid of Physical Impurities-Getting rid of Chemical Impurities. Bringing the sample to a form by which it can be used for further procedure.


PROCESSING mixing together the ingredients subjecting them to triturating for proper homogenization. Addition of herbal juices as per the requirement and further grinding to impregnate the qualities of the herbs into the compound. As per the case may be there can be various procedures of either Puta Paka , Sindura Nirmana ,Parpati Nirmana ,Pottali Nirmana and so on . Each and every procedure has been clearly mentioned with the Siddha Lakshana of the particular compound. In Kharaliya rasayanas the main object is complete homogenization of the ingredients, invisibility of the metals separately like the absences of free mercury or particles of other metals & minerals.


PROCESSING The criteria of bhasma pariksha i.e. Slakshnatwa, Sukshmatwa, Rekhapurnatwa, apunarbhavatwa , and nirutthatwa . In Sindura, the main criteria is Sindura Varna while the addition of other ingredients reflect in the final product as per particular formulation. The madhyama Paka lakshana of parpati are to be considered for a perfect parpati. For pottali prepation the Paka lakshana like vyoma Varna of boiling sulphur , metallic sound produced by the Pottali when stroked against the vessel are to be considered .


Post-processing The clinical application of these drugs is considered to be having no side-effect when administered in a prescribed dose along with a particular anupana. It is believed that the complexity of the ingredients and the processing technicality does not give much opportunity for so called chemical analysis, for standardization purposes. However the available chemical essay by volumetric methods, use of XRD, ICM-MS, ICP-OES, XRF, HVG flame, AAS etc., are taken as tools for the standardization purposes.


Post-processing As per the inbuilt safety mechanism of rasa aushadhis, the modern theory of chelating suits more for explaining the safety of rasa- drugs. Chelation is the formation or presence of two or more separate bindings between a polydentate ligand and a single central atom. Usually these ligands are organic compound which are known as chelants , chelators , chelating agents or sequestering agents.

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Chelants are chemicals that form soluble complex molecules with certain metal ions inactivating the ions so that they cannot normally react with other elements or ions to produce precipitates. The word chelation is derived from Greek chele meaning claw; the ligands lie around the central atom like the claws of a lobster. It can be interpreted that the ions of the metals used in mercurial compound are chelated by the organic material like juices, decoctions thus controlling the direct influence of these metals in the system.

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It is said that chelation therapy is the use of chelating agents to detoxify poisonous metal agents such as mercury, arsenic & leadby converting them to a chemically Inert from that can be excreted without further interaction with the body. Thus apart from being useful in augmenting the therapeutic efficacy, the use of bhavana Drava can also labeled as mercurial preparation.

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Since, the analytical studies are considered very costly and not at disposal of the Indian ayurvedic pharma industry, the development of alternative methods for this purpose can be adopted. Most popular and cost effective method is NPST. This is an innovative technology for finding the presence of metals in a given compound. Due to various reasons this technique is neglected by the modern scientist.

Namburi Phased Spot Test:

Dr. Namburi Hanumanth Rao of the academy of ayurveda, Vijayawada has brought this again into practice and was able to make people astonish by his experiments being successfully used in finding the genuinety of the mercurial formulations . Namburi Phased Spot Test


APPLIED ASPECT OF NAMBURI PHASED SPOT TEST (NPST) IN IDENTIFYING PURITY OF MERCURY. The Impurity of Mercury is caused by blemishes Naisargika -- Naga, Vanga, Vahni, mala, Chapalya, garala , giri , Asahyagni --R.T.S/7 Yaugika -- Naga & Vanga – Yaugikau nagavangau dvau Jadyadhamana Kushthadau – R.R.S 11/18 Aupadhika / Kanchuka – Parpati, Patini , Bhedi , Dravi , Malakari , Andhakari , dhvankshi – R.R.S 11/21 Bumija , Girija , Varja , dve cha dve naga vangaje - R.R.S 11/12 Thus we see Naga and Vanga doshas, afflicting Mercury at every stage “ NAGAVANGAU MAHAGHORAU ASEVYAU HI NIRANTARAM ” -- Rasaprakasasudhakara

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And therefore it becomes necessary to check Mercury for it being free From Naga and Vanga doshas. “ DOSHAHINO YADASUTASTADA MRITYUJARAPAHAH ” “ SAKSHADAMRITAMAPYEVA DOSHAYUKTO RASO VISHAM ” -----N IGHANTURATNAKARA Mercury, when made devoid of blemishes, alleviates death and old age while it is poison in a state when it is afflicted with blemishes .

The criteria for purity of Mercury :

The criteria for purity of Mercury “ ANTASSUNILO BAHIRUJJAVALO YO MADHYAHNA SURYA PRATIMA PRAKASAH “ “ SASTOATHA DHUMRAH PARIPANDURASCHA CHITRO NAYOJYO RAKSAKARMA SIDDHAU. ” - RASENDRASARASANGRAHA Mercury which looks bluish from inside; bright out-side and has lustre of after-noon SUN is useful for processing into medicine. But when it appears smoky, pale and bizarre, It Should not be used in any Rasa karma. This criterion is purely subjective and the user can always be misleading in identifying the purity .There should be some quantifiable criteria which is repeatable and also acceptable to the concerned.


NPST During the process of testing the Naga vanga bhasmas this author felt why this could not be applied to know the Mercury whether it is free from Naga and Vanga. Naga and Vanga are soluble in 5NHNO3. These bhasmas are tested on 10% Potassium Iodide paper. Accordingly the present experiment is planned.

Methods and Materials :

Methods and Materials Mercury is taken in the quantity of 1.0 gm and added with 1ml of 5NHNO3 in a test tube, heated for 30 seconds and allowed to settle down. After completion of reaction, one drop of the Supernatant liquid from the test tube is taken and placed gently on the whatman filter paper which is already treated with 10% Potassium Iodide and kept in a frame. The drop immediately spreads in the frame ring. It is studied for the color and pattern. Presence of Naga is confirmed by the appearance of yellow spot in the Centre and that of Vanga, by white spot. Various samples of Mercury are subjected to this test.


OBSERVATION 1) The presence of Mercury in this spot is identified by Brick-Red color. 2) The presence of Naga and Vanga is seen in higher intensity in the market samples. 3) It is also seen in the Triple distilled Mercury samples. 4) Mild presence is seen in Hingulottha parada. 5) Mercury grounded with lime, garlic and Rock salt Showed no traces of Naga and Vanga


CONCLUSION 1) The NPST is so sensitive that it could elicit the presence of Naga from the triple distilled Mercury. 2) The traditional purifactory measure i.e. grinding with lime, garlic and rock salt completely mitigates Naga and Vanga doshas from Mercury. 3) The readings are clearer when the solution is subjected to spotting after 24 hours of preparation. 4) This test is easier, cheaper, faster and fool-proof. 5) This test will go a long-way in making genuine Rasaushadhis and alleviating fears of spurious medicines.

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The present paper deals with the technique of N.P.S.T. in identifying differences is in quality of Tamrabhasma prepared by different processes. To avoid prolixity, it is decided grossly to distinguish between the Tamrabhasma incinerated with Kajjali i.e. paradamarita and that processed with herbs i.e. mulikamarita . Methods & Materials Paradamarita - Tamrabhasma Jambira rasa Sampista Rasa Gandhaka Lepitam | Sulba Patram Saravastham … .. Sushkam Gaja pute pachyat sarva dosha haram bhavet || RRS 5th Ch. Moolikamarita Tilaparnirasai Tamrapatrani Parilepayeth | Subhravarna bhavedbhasma Natra Karya Vicharana || Rasajalanidhi 2 Vol. / 4Ch.

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Method: 0.25 gm of bhasma is taken from each sample into two separate test tubes and labeled accordingly and are added 0.5 ml of 20% HCl to the above 2 samples. The solutions are stored well and kept for 48 hrs. A drop from the supernatant liquid is taken from each sample and treated with 10% KI & 5% ferrocyanide paper simultaneously. As soon as a drop is treated with the chemical reacting papers spots begin to develop, colour and pattern rapidly change from minute to minute. The Reaction that takes place during the 1 st 5 mts is considered as 1 st phase and 5-15 mts is considered as 2 nd phase. 15 mts -1 hr or more is considered as 3 rd phase. During these 3 phases we observe development of colours and patterns of the spots. Finally we select one of the phases where a spectacular criteria are observed that particular spot is taken as standard one (phase).

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When a drop from each sample is treated with 5% Pot. Ferrocyanide paper a well defined solid chocolate colored spot is formed. In the case of paradamarita Tamrabhasma white (colorless) periphery with Blue margin is seen around the solid chocolate coloured spot where as in the case of ordinary Tamrabhasma (mulika maaritha Tamrabhasma) instead of white (colorless) periphery a blue periphery in seen since the colour and pattern of spot is stable for many days. These spots are taken as standard spots.

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2nd Experiment: The same samples are taken in the quantity of 0.25 Gms of each into 2 separate test tubes with 0.5ml of Aqua regia , heated for a while, stirred and left. After a period of 90 mnts drops are taken from the solutions with a dropper from both the samples separately and treated with 5% Ferrocyanide and 10% KI Chemical reacting papers .

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OBSERVATION : In the case of Paradamarita Tamrabhasma on 10% KI paper a brick-red colored spot is formed with dark brown periphery while in the case of moolikamarita Tamra Bhasma light green solid spot is formed. Over a period of time i.e. after 24 hours paradamarita sample showed some circles of Brick red with white and light brown colour. While in moolika marita it did not show any changes. these 2 samples when treated with 5% Ferrocyanide paper they develop central chocolate colour solid spots which confirm that both are Tamra Bhasma ’ s but these two are differentiated on KI paper . This method is repeated with various samples prepared by various mfrs. It is found the finishing's are uniform. Differentiated on KI paper. This method is repeated with various samples prepared by various mfrs. It is found the finishing's are uniform.

Slide 28:

Conclusion: NPST is so sensitive test which is able to differentiate paradamarita and moolikamarita Tamra Bhasma ’ s. When Paradamarita and moolikamarita Tamra Bhasma ’ s are given to Capt. G.Sreenivasa Murthy Research institute unit of CCRAS they could not identify Paradamarita Tamra Bhasma as Paradamarita and Moolikamarita as Moolikamarita Tamra Bhasma. Instead they observe as follows –“ Tamra Bhasma is mostly copper, present partly as sulphide and partly as Oxide, and usual trace elements. Mercury is used as catalytic agent in the preparation and is totally absent in the Bhasma. Clinical studies should be able to make use of this test has a basis for pharmaceutical standardization and therapeutic validation of this drug ” . Now it is obvious that NPST is more modern than the present modern technology.


IDENTIFICATION OF GENUINENESS OF MAKARDHWAJA BY NPST. Makaradhwaja, a micronutrient Mercury has been in use for centuries. In due course of time, the practice of making this preparation has passed through some fraudulent phases in hands of spurious pharmaceutical concerns and such I ndividuals . As a result, substandard Makaradhwaja started entering into the market, causing unpopularity to the Ayurvedic Medicines. Two major malpractices have been identified in the preparation of Makaradhwaja are contd …..

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Separating the sublimate and residue and giving only sublimate which does not at all contain Gold, ultimately the desired effect is not achieved. Not following the manufacturing technicality in a stringent manner i.e. grinding with Rasasindhura with Gold leaves separately and labeling it as Siddha Makaradwaja . This also does not serve the purpose as Gold is not subjected to Jarana directly. Thanks to the Technique of Identifying presence of Gold in Makaradhwaja by the modern chemical analysis and the technique like NPST, in the absence of which Rasa Sindoor itself without Gold would have been labeled and marketed as Siddhamakaradhwaja .


METHODS & MATERIALS: Siddha Makaradwaja is procured from a reliable manufacturer. 0.25gm of Siddha Makaradhwaja is taken into a Test tube added 0.5 ml of aqua regia . After 5 min.the test tube is heated gently on a spirit lamp for 1 min. The test tube is labeled and left for 48 hrs. A drop is taken from the supernatant solution and treated with 10% KI paper simultaneously another drop from the same sample is treated with Haridra paper. The artificial Siddhamakaradhwaja is prepared by mixing 980 mg of Rasa Sindura along with 20mg of Swarna bhasma. Same method is followed in preparing solution and putting the drops.

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OBSERVATION: In case of Classical Siddha Makardhwaja : On the 10% Potassium Iodide paper, a moderately solid spot of yellow colour with wide brick red margin and dark brown periphery is formed. On Haridra paper a solid spot of deep purple colour is formed.

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In case of Artificial Siddha Makardhwaja On 10% Potassium Iodide paper, a brick red spot with white striations is formed, On Haridra paper, purple colour spot is formed.

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The spots of Artificial Makaradhwaja are unstable on wet treatment i.e. putting one drop of distilled water on the spots of the Haridra paper. While in the case of spot of the classical Siddha Makaradhwaja the colour and pattern of the spots are quite stable on wet treatment.


DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: Solid yellow colored spot is seen on 10% KI paper only in the case of Swarna BH. And also it is confirmed by the deep purple colour on Haridra paper which is not seen in the case of any other Metal. The brick red spot in the case of Artificial Siddhamakaradhwaja indicates improper Conjugation of Mercury and Gold and domination of only Rasa Sindura, however the presence of Gold in Artificial Makaradhwaja is confirmed by the purple colored spot on Haridra paper. Contd ….


DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION Hence, it is clear that the classical Siddha Makaradhwaja prepared basing on the textual reference of Rasa Tarangini 6/245-247 can be distinctly identifiable by this method While artificialSiddhamakaradhwaja so to say prepared by shortcut process, does not give the same type of picture in the spot test especially on 10% KI paper. Contd ……


DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION The modern analytical method, though it reveals the presence of Gold in the sample but it cannot distinguish between the classical and artificial samples of Siddha Makaradhwaja. This method will go a long way in finding out certain fraudulent practices in manufacturing great medicines like Siddha Makaradhwaja. Hence it is advised to adopt this most practical and cost- effective method of qualitative analysis may be adopted for primary standardization of rasashastra formulations for a safe and effective therapeutic application.

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