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MESAURES FOR STANDARDIZATION OF AYURVEDIC FORMULATIONS. KUPIPAKVA RASAYANA Dr. Srinivasa Charyulu, Dr. M. Srinivas Naik P G Dept of Rassastra, Dr.N.R.S.Govt.Ayur.College, Vijayawada

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In the last few decades there has also been an increasing interest in and use of traditional treatments in urban areas all over the world. The growing importance of traditional medicine is reflected by developed countries setting up centers for studying its use in treating HIV/AIDS, CANCER and other diseases questions regarding the quality of traditional medicines have become an important issue today. modern standards evaluating the quality, safety, and efficacy of these medicines they have become the main concerns not only for the consumers but also for the regulatory authorities across countries. However in countries like India & China medical knowledge has also been documented in thousands of medical manuscripts in most traditional health countries standards are available as advised or recommendations for identity and collection. In fact modern tools of chemistry and biology of capable at least partially objectifying traditional standards where they exist. Understanding the context of inter cultural research is necessary, when discussing the relationship between traditional and modern sciences.


MODERN TOOLS FOR STANDARDIZATION rapidly growing a consumer acceptance of complimentary medicine it is imperative to urgently evolve sensitive modern standards for the quality, safety & efficacy of traditional medicine (WHO 2000). Quality assurance of traditional medicine involves the quality of not only raw materials mostly plants but also animal metals and minerals as well as of finished products. Identification biological (morphological) microscopic chemical and bio chemical methods are available to undertake standardization of the traditionally identified material and they should be appropriately applied. A combination of physical chemical and biological techniques and tools are required to study traditional medicine depending on the nature of the product.

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Microscopy: To characterize raw drugs and powder drugs has been a very useful tool for many in the herbal sector. HPTL , HPLC Can high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) can be used for finger printing herbal products Flame photo meter and the atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) or required for studying traditional medicines containing metals or minerals Volatiles are generally quantified using gas chromatography NMR, ESCA, can be used to study traditional medicines and characterize the compounds of interest.

Traditional measures for standardization:

Traditional measures for standardization I SHODANA PROCESS: Objects: to remove physical impurities (Sand, mud, stone e.g.. Shilajatu) To remove chemical impurities (Naga, Vanga in parada) Neutralizing toxicity. (Sulphur- by milk) Enriching therapeutic value (Sodhana of Abraka – Triphala) Suitable for marana (sukshma by grinding) Incorporating organic qualities (metal, mineral – inorganic, herbal, animal Products – organic) II MARANA: Elements are converted into certain compounds compounds are converted into other compounds Macro form of materials convert into microform Heavy metals converted to light/soft III PUTA SYSTEM: Puta is a specific system of eating for the incineration metals and minerals Four categories Best – marana by mercurial compounds Medium – By the vegetables Inferior – By the Gandhaka and Gandhaka containing materials Discardable – Marana by ariloha (enemy metals) Standardizations of puta – Pyrometer, Thermocouple.


KUPIPAKVA RASAYANA Kupipakva method is developed mainly for ghandaka jarana in which ghandaka is added with mercury in different proportions and burned it with the help of fire, in glass bottle (Kupi). The aim is to produce strong bond structure between the molecules of Mercury and sulphur, to combat the strong and chronic diseases. As time passed and requirements increased vaidyas invented new experiments by adding same metals (e.g.. Gold, Silver, Tin) and non metals (; like Heritala, Malla) in the kupipakva method. Due to miraculous effects on dreadful and chronic ailments, kupipakva Rasayana got lot of name & fame. And thus the practice of kupipakva Rasayana gradually increased. The whole aim of the theme is to make the substance molecular or particle size. Particle size for easy absorption assimilation and excretion. Smaller the particle size betters the rate of absorption Mercury and sulphur are the elements mostly used in preparation of various kupipakva Rasayana. In many process mercury has been used to amalgamate with the metals and form an intermediate products, which could increase the surface reactivity of the metal with other chemical.

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When mercury is amalgamated with metals, it gets converted into semi solid mass and easily reacts with sulpher to formblack sulphide, and thus it promotes the high temperature reaction with other metals. Most of the chemical reaction involve in kupipakvarasayana preparations are Heterogeneous kinetics i.e. reaction between solid gas or solid- liquid and it is known that the rate of such reactions is proportional to the interfacial area. Sublimation is the chemical process, involved in most of the kupipakva Rasayana preparations. It is the unique process converting a solid directly into vapors and condensing the vapor into solid state having the same composition. Standardized temparature in kupipakva Rasayana. The temperature pattern and duration for preparation of all KPR.are different , but gradual heating system is followed for all. Preparation of rassindura,makaradwaja,mall,tala, shila sindura need allmost same grade heating but duration depends on amount of free sulphur in the Kajjali, here required highest temp. is around 600 degC.


PARAMETERS FOR STANDARDIZATION OF KUKIPAKVA RASAYANAS (KPR) Varna pariksha: The colour of KPR medicines should be Reddish brown, brick red or vermillion colour. Sparsha Pariksha: On touch it should be soft. Rasa Pariksha: It should be taste less. Shabda Pariksha: on breaking it should create some sound. Gandha pariksha : it should be odorless Varitaratva: should be float on the water surface. Rekapurnatha: should enter in the lines of fingers. Nischandratva: should be no lustiness. Khatorata: Should not break easily Rekhapariksha : on rubbing firmly on the white paper, it should leave red colour line mark Uttama Pariksha: If grain of rice is kept on the surface is should also float without sinking in water.


OBJECTIVE PARAMETERS Determination of Loss of drying Total ash Water soluble ash Acid insoluble ash Solubility test Namburi Phased Spot Test (NPST) Estimation of sulphur and arsenic (Chemical Assay and Thermo Gravy matry) Powder X ray defraction (XRD) study It is the most useful technique in the characterization crystalline materials such as Minerals, metals, inter metallic and ceramics Scanning electron microscopy (SCM) Energy dispersive X ray analysis : This technique is used in conjunction with SEM and is not a surface science technique Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) Inductive coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry) ICP AES Analysis of wash out solution by ICP OES Particle size analysis


CONCLUSION In Indian system of medicine heavy metals become inseparable components. They are considered to be highly efficacious therapeutics. Kupipakva Rasayana is one of the best and fast acting medicines according to standardization of Ayurvedic formulations. The continuity of practicing these medicines in our country with must appreciation inspite of unnecessary fear created now by the present scientific community. According to the modern medicine above drugs are toxic to the human body but the unique methods followed in Rassastra for detoxification of raw materials and processing techniques by which toxicity is nullified and made it therapeutically useful. Hence the KPR method is the standard one and it can effectively take care of the hazardous diseases.



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