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Dr. M. Srinivas Naik Dept. of. Rassastra Dr. N.R.S. Govt. Ayurvedic college Vijayawada-2 msnaik108@gmail.com INTRODUCTION OF RASSASTRA

Rasa Shastra in Ayurveda :

Rasa Shastra in Ayurveda The term ‘Rassastra’ is composed of two words ‘Rasa’ and ‘Shastra’ where Rasa means absorbable form of drugs and Shastra means science of knowledge. Rasa Shastra or "Vedic Chemistry“ Nagarjuna, considered to be the father of Rasa Shastra

Rasa Shastra in Ayurveda:

Rasa Shastra describes the use of metals, gems, minerals and poisons to produce special formulations that combat acute conditions and chronic diseases. Rassastra is Ayurvedic pharmaceutics, which deals with the drugs of mineral origin, their varieties, characteristics, processing techniques, properties and their therapeutic uses. This science is often referred to as "alchemy" and the resultant medications are called rasas, which mainly comprise of metallic ashes called Bhasma. Rasa Shastra in Ayurveda

Rasa Shastra in Ayurveda:

These Bhasma, or lighter forms of metals, are contained in organo- metallic compounds that work as carriers (yogavahi). This means they are able to carry the herbs mixed with them faster to the desired site and start the action immediately. They acts as catalysts and increase the bioavailability of the herbs to the cell. After performing the desired action, the bhasmas are eliminated through our excretory systems, specifically via mutra and mala (urine and stool). Rasa Shastra in Ayurveda

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Ayurvedic chemists have evolved various procedures like sublimation, oven treatment, controlled heat incineration, grinding, mixing, churning etc. To inculcate the therapeutic properties in the minerals for which many specific types of yantras (instruments) are designed. dola yantra, patana yantra, damaruka yantra, swedan yantra, valuka yantra, bhudhara yantra, etc. acharyas described yantras according to their need.(41)

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Everything should be purified/detoxified first (Shodhana) and then must be converted into Bhasma (ash) This is achieved by controlled/sustained heat incineration again and again, as many times as possible. TYPES OF PUTAS CHANDRA PUTA SURYA PUTA AGNI PUTA

Agni putas :

Agni putas Mahaputa, 1500 Gajaputa, 1000 Varaha puta, 500 Kukkuta puta, 100 Laghuputa, ---- Bhudara puta , ---- Govara puta, ---- Bhanda puta ---- and VALUKA PUTA (kupipakva preparation)etc . MUFFLE FURNACE. (1100-1450 c) Scarcity of vanyopal , need of large quantity of drug , companies using electric furnace only.

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According to Ayurveda, 'Parad' (Mercury) and 'Gandhak’ (Sulphur) are the most important minerals Both mercury and sulphur could be toxic separately, but blended together, they form black amalgam known as Kajjali, which is relatively safe and makes an ideal base for most of the uparasa preparations. Kajjali is claimed to exert potentiating effect on the properties of other drugs and makes them easily assimilate in body tissues.

Classification of Rasa :

Classification of Rasa Maharasa · Abraka --------100-200mg · Vaikrant--------4-9 mg · Makshik--------50-200mg · Vimal-----------50-200mg · Shilajit---------200-800mg · Sasyak---------13-25mg · Chapal---------bismuth · Rasak----------Zn0 Uprasa · Gandhak----100-800mg · Gairik-------200-400mg · Kasis--------50-200mg · Kankshi-----200-400mg · Hartal-------25-50mg · Mansheel----4-6mg · Anjan--------Pb0 · Kankusth----5-10mg

Classification of Rasa:

Sadharana rasa · Kampillak-------400-600mg · Gauripashana—1-4mg · Navsadar-------200-800mg · Kapard----------200mg · Agnijar----------5-10mg · Girisindhur------Ext. · Hingul-----------50mg · Mruddarshring—Pb0 Dhatu · Swarna (Gold)----------12.5-25mg · Rajata (Silver)----------25-100mg · Tamra (Copper)--------400mg(50mg) · Loha (Iron)--------------25-200mg · Vanga (Tin)--------------100-200mg · Naga (Lead)-------------25-100mg · Yasada (Zinc)-----------50-100mg Classification of Rasa

Classification of Rasa:

Upadhatu Svarna Makshik (Copper pyrite) · Tutha (Copper sulphate) · Kharpar (Zinc ore) · Kasis (Ferrous sulphate) · Anjana (Galena) · Shilajatu · Gairika (Red ochre) Ratna (Gems) -Manikya (ruby)----------25-50mg · Pushparaga (topaz)----25-100mg · Tarkshaya (emerald)---25-100mg · Mukta (pearl)-----------25-100mg · vajra (diamond)---------3.2-6.4mg · Neelam (sapphire)------12.5-50mg · Vaidurya (cat's eye)-----25-100mg · Gomeda (sardonyx)-----25-50mg · Pravala (coral)---------50-200mg Classification of Rasa

Classification of Rasa:

Upratna · Rajavrta---------50-100mg · Jade-------------200-400mg · Akik · Suryakanta-------25-100mg · Sphatika · Chandrakanta-----50-100mg · Perojaka-----------50-100mg · Trinkanta · Vaikranta Sudha-varga · Churna sudha (Quick lime)---30-60 drops · Khatika (Chalk)---------------300-600mg · Samudraphen (Cuttle fish)----200mg · Shukti (Oyster shell)----------200mg · Shankh (Conch)---------------200mg · Kapardika(Sambuk)-----------200mg · Dugdhapashan (Talc)----------100mg · Godanti (Selenite)------------- · Mrugashrunga (Deer-horn)---100-200mg · Kukkutandatwak (Egg shell)---100-400mg Classification of Rasa


SHODANA PROCESS : Objects: To remove physical impurities (Sand, mud, stone e.g..Shilajatu) To remove chemical impurities (Naga, Vanga in parada) Neutralizing toxicity. (Sulphur- by milk) Enriching therapeutic value (Sodhana of Abraka – Triphala) Suitable for marana (sukshma by grinding) Incorporating organic qualities (metal, mineral – inorganic, herbal, animal Products – organic)


MARANA: Elements are converted into certain compounds compounds are converted into other compounds Macro form of materials convert into microform Heavy metals converted to light/soft

Bhasma Preparation Tests:

Bhasma Preparation Tests WARITARA (Water/flooded): If the Bhasma is fully prepared, it will float on the surface of water, indicating lightness. REKHAPURNA (Lines/full): Indicates that the Bhasma in prepared form should be fine. When taken between thumb and forefinger, the fine powder will fill the lines of the fingerprint. APUNARBHAV (Unchanged): Indicates that the Bhasma should retain its original form, especially color, despite mixing with other substances: the mitrapanchak or five substances; molasses, gunja, sohaga, honey, and ghee, when heated.

Bhasma Preparation Tests:

UTTANIA (Moving): A grain of rice, barley, etc. will float over the preparation like a swan on a lake. NIRUJA: When prepared, Bhasma heated with a silver plate will stick to it. The form will remain unchanged. NISWADU (Taste): The Bhasma should be completely tasteless. Sour, bitter, or sweet tones indicate incomplete preparation. 7. NISCHANDRA (Sparking): There should be no shining or sparkly particles in the Bhasma; they show unchanged substance, particularly for gold, silver, and mica. Bhasma Preparation Tests

Bhasma Preparation Tests:

8) AWAMI (Biological): When a tiny bit of the Bhasma has been put on the tip of the tongue, there should be no effect. Impure Bhasma will cause nausea or vomiting. 9) AMLA (Sour): When Bhasma is put with citrus juice, especially lemon, it should retain its color and original form. 10) NIRDHUM (Smokeless): Finished Bhasma will not emit any smoke when put over fire, while the impure form emits smoke. Bhasma Preparation Tests

In Yoga Ratnakara, the standard colors of the Bhasma have been discussed extensively. :

Gold- -----------------------------Champak flower silver and copper----------------Black color Naga- ----------------------------The pigeon neck Vanga- --------------------------White color iron containing ores- ----------Red colour Abraka Bhasma- --------------Brick red color Swarna Makshik ------------- Jamun fruit color. In Yoga Ratnakara, the standard colors of the Bhasma have been discussed extensively.

Need to ensure safety of Bhasmas:

Need to ensure safety of Bhasmas Metals are first purified through a process called Sodhana, during which the metal is repeatedly heated and then cooled in herbal extracts. Hence we have dasha puta (10 cycles), satha puta (100 cycles), Shahasra puta (1000 cycles), etc. To ensure that the Bhasma is properly prepared, a set of tests are also specified. Bhasma are known to be effective in very small doses, usually a few milligrams. Shelf-life of Bhasma is believed to be infinite.


PARAMETERS FOR STANDARDIZATION OF KUKIPAKVA RASAYANAS (KPR) Varna pariksha: The colour of KPR medicines should be Reddish brown, brick red colour. Sparsha Pariksha:----On touch it should be soft. Rasa Pariksha:-------It should be taste less. Shabda Pariksha: ----on breaking it should create some sound. Gandha pariksha -----it should be odorless Varitaratva: ---------should be float on the water surface. Rekapurnatha: --------should enter in the lines of fingers. Nischandratva:--------should be no lustiness. Khatorata: ------------Should not break easily Rekhapariksha -------- on rubbing firmly on the white paper, it should leave red colour line mark Uttama Pariksha:-----If grain of rice is kept on the surface is should also float without sinking in water.


OBJECTIVE PARAMETERS Determination of Loss of drying Total ash Water soluble ash Acid insoluble ash Solubility test Namburi Phased Spot Test (NPST) Estimation of sulphur and arsenic (Chemical Assay and Thermo Gravy matry)

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4. Powder X ray defraction (XRD) study It is the most useful technique in the characterization crystalline materials such as 6. Minerals, metals, inter metallic and ceramics Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 8. Energy dispersive X ray analysis : This technique is used in conjunction with SEM and is not a surface science technique Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) 10. Inductive coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry) ICP AES 11. Analysis of wash out solution by ICP OES 12. Particle size analysis


CHARACTERIZATION WITH MODERN INSTRUMENTS X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy -------- (XPS) X-ray Diffraction ---------------------------- (XRD) X-ray Fluorescence -------------------------- (XRF) Scanning Electron Microscopy ------------ (SEM) Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis--------- (EDX) Thermogravimetry --------------------------- (TG) Infrared Spectroscopy ----------------------- (IR) Inductive Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry -----------------------------(ICP-AES) Inductive Coupled Plasma with Optical Emission Spectroscopy ------------------------------- (ICP-OES) Particle Size Analysis.---------------------- (PSA)


METAL ANALISERS Portable and mobile on-site metal analyzers - for fast and reliable identification (PMI), sorting and analysis of metals. Stationary metal analyzers - for all kinds of metals in the process control. ICP spectrometers - for the rapid analysis of chemical elements in a variety of matrices including aqueous, semi-conductor, petrochemical, soil, metallurgical and slurries. ICP-MS spectrometers – for the fully simultaneous measurement of the complete, inorganically relevant, mass range.

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XRF spectrometers - for the analysis of solids, powders and liquids. XRF handheld analyzer - for metal analysis and sorting, compliance screening, environmental testing and mining applications. SPECTRO x SORT - is a compact, ergonomically designed, handheld energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for high throughput elemental testing, screening and analysis of a broad range of materials in widely varying locations, environments and conditions.

Metals of Ayurveda Some Facts :

Metals of Ayurveda Some Facts Metals of Ayurveda behave differently than their counter parts in – modern Medicine. Phenomenon of isomerism. Kajjali and Parpati have different actions on the body although both of them are black sulphide of mercury. The difference between them is them is the Sanskara (processing). The preparation of Kajjali does not involve heating while rasa- Parpati is obtained after heating Kajjali.

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Patients allergic to modern sulpha drugs do not show allergic reaction when Gandhaka Rasayana is given (the difference is processing, Ayurvedic Sulphur compounds are purified and prepared as per Ayurvedic texts). Inorganic mercury compounds like mercurous chloride and mercuric chloride are white powders and do not generally vaporize at room temperatures like elemental mercury will. If they are inhaled, they are not expected to enter your body as easily as inhaled metallic mercury vapor.

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There is limited laboratory evidence suggesting that several dietary components might reduce . (e.g. selenium, vitamin C and E, omega-3 fatty acids) or enhance (e.g. alcohol) mercury’s toxicity for some endpoints. Mercury and other metals become toxic only when they exceed a tolerable safe level. Ayurvedic medicine should standard with our parameters, not with modern parameters our tests should help us ,not for modern people. Ayurveda with the confidence that they can do so safely.

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Drugs of vegetable origin ---------poisons Ahipena ---------------------------Papaver somniferurn Linn. Arka ------------------------------ Colotropis gigantean (linn.) R. Br. Ex. Ait. Bhallataka -----------------------Semecarpus anacardium Linn. f. Bhanga ---------------------------Cannabis eativa Linn. Danti -----------------------------Baliospermum montanum Mall. Arg. Dhattura------------------------- Datura metal Linn. Gunj ------------------------------Abrus Jaipala (Jayapala) ---------------Croton tiglium Linn. Karaveera------------------------Rerium indicum Mill. Langali ---------------------------Gloriosa superba Linn. Parasika -------------------------Yavani Hyocyamus inibar Linn. Snuhi -----------------------------Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. Vatsanabha---------------------- Acontium chasmanthum Stapfex Holm. Vishmushti -----------------------Strychnox nuxvolnica Linn. Shringivisha----------------------Acontium chasmanthum Stapfex Holm.

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Drugs of Animal Origin Sarpa Visha --------------------------------Snake poison. Drugs of Mineral Origin Gauripashna --------------------------------Arsenic Hartala -------------------------------------Arseno sulphide Manahashila --------------------------------Arseno sulphide Parada --------------------------------------Mercury Rasa Karpura -------------------------------Mercurous Chloride Tuttha ---------------------------------------Copper sulphate Hingula --------------------------------------Cinnabar Sindura --------------------------------------Red oxide of lead Girisindura ----------------------------------Red oxide of mercury.

Bhaisajya Kalpana :

Bhaisajya Kalpana .Which deals with the various forms of medicine such as syrups, juice, tablet, powder etc. .Bhaisajya Kalpana includes complete knowledge of drugs including the basic principles of drugs. .Bhaisajya Kalpana Importance · It increases the potency of medicine by sanskar i.e. vishesh gunantardhana (adding or generating special property) · It makes the medicine durable · It makes the medicine palatable. · It removes the toxic effect of medicine by Shodhana karma. · As per the severity of the disease it helps the adjustment of dosha · It makes the medicine as per need of patient and disease.

Schematic representation of preparing Ras-Rasayan :

Schematic representation of preparing Ras- Rasayan Mercury Sulphur Other Metals Herbs Saindhav lavan / Milk / Lahsun Bhringaraj Specific purification KAJJALI KAJJALI (of specific medicine) Common purification As per texts Ras- Rasayan Kupi pakwa rasayan With Gold Without Gold With Gold VKR, BVCR, VMR LVR, Ras Sindhur Siddha makaradhwaj special

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RECOMMENDES DOSES OF INDIVIDUAL BHASMAS Sl.No Bhasma Name Dose min. Dose max Reference 1 Parada ( Suddha ) 1/4 Ratti or 30 mg 1 Ratti or 120 mg Ra.Ta. 2 Gandhaka ( Suddha ) 1 Ratti or 120 mg 8 Ratti or 960 mg Ra.Ta. 3 Kajjali 1 Ratti or 120 mg 2 Ratti or 240 mg Self 4 Abhraka Bhasma 1 Ratti or 120 mg 2 Ratti or 240 mg Dr. KNS 5 Loha Bhasma 1/4 Ratti or 30 mg 2 Ratti or 240 mg Ra.Ta. 6 Swarna makshika Bhasma 1/2 Ratti or 60 mg 2 Ratti or 240 mg Ra.Ta. 7 Svarna Bhasma 1/8 Ratti or 15 mg 1/4 Ratti or 30 mg Ra.Ta. 8 Rajata Bhasma 1/4 Ratti or 30 mg 1 Ratti or 120 mg Ra.Ta. 9 Tamra Bhasma 1/8 Ratti or 15 mg 1/2 Ratti or 60 mg Ra.Ta. 10 Vanga Bhasma 1 Ratti or 120 mg 2 Ratti or 240 mg Ra.Ta. 11 Naga Bhasma 1/4 Ratti or 30 mg 1 Ratti or 120 mg Ra.Ta. 12 Yashada Bhasma 1/2 Ratti or 60 mg 1 Ratti or 120 mg Ra.Ta. 13 Talaka ( Suddha ) 1/4 Ratti or 30 mg 1/2 Ratti or 60 mg Ra.Ta. 14 Manahshila ( Suddha ) 1/32 Ratti 3.75 mg 1/16 Ratti or 7.5 mg Ra.Ta. 15 Pravala Bhasma 1/2 Ratti or 60 mg 2 Ratti or 240 mg Ra.Ta. 16 Mukta Bhasma 1/4 Ratti or 30 mg 1 Ratti or 120 mg Ra.Ta. 17 Saindhava Lavana NA NA NA 18 Souvarcha Lavana NA NA NA 19 Bida Lavana NA NA NA 20 Sarja kshara 3 Ratti 360 mg 10 Ratti or 1200 mg Ra.Ta. 21 Yava kshara 3 Ratti 360 mg 12 Ratti or 1440 mg Ra.Ta .


Vat vidhvamsana Rasa Aarogyavardhini Rasa Yoga raja guggulu Mahayograj Guggulu Simhanada Guggulu Tribhuvan Kirti Rasa Bruhad Vat Chintamani Ras Bruhad or Laghu Suvarna Vasant Malini Rasa Sama Garala Tarunara Ras Yogendra Ras Ekanga Veer Ras Panchamrita Parpati Tamra Bhasma Trivanga Bhasma SamirPannaga Rasa Chandraprabha Vati Laxmivilas Rasa Swasakuthar Rasa Makardhwaja Vati etc. COMMENLY USING DRUGS


Oksatmya. Ayurveda has termed it Oksatmya; means which is non-toxic due to practice. We have read the stories of Vishakanyas who were being given Visha. the most important point is, in Ayurveda or Rasashashtra, any metal is never prescribed as raw or virgin metal. For removing free radicals of excess dose of medicine, vitamins A ,B,C And E and panchakarma is advisable.


SOURCES OF HEAVY METALS Food stuff Fruits & Vegetables Multivitamin products Diagnostic medical applications Use of lead in shield around X-ray equipment Pesticides Batteries Alloys Electroplating Textile dyes Steel etc.


HEAVY METALS IN PHARMA PRODUCTS & HERBAL MEDICINES ARE DIFFERENT HEAVY METALS IN PHARMACEUTICALS Single Molecules Easy for Separation Artificially Occurring Potentially Toxic HEAVY METALS IN HERBAL MEDICINES Poly Molecules Difficult for Separation Naturally Occurring Relatively Non-toxic



Medicinal Use of Heavy Metals:

HgCl 2 is highly active in 0.1% aqueous solution. Compounds which act as antibacterial as a result of the presence of mercuric ion are primarily bacteriostatic rather than bactericiedal . The silver salts, such as silver nitrate, although somewhat less active, are still highly efficient germicides. Cu salts are still less active but are highly efficient in the destruction of algae and other chlorophyll containing organisms. The antibacterial activity of heavy metals is most probably due to the formation of poorly dissociable salts of the sulfhydryl groups of proteins e.g., 2 protein – SH + Hg 2+ – Protein – S – Hg – S – Protein + 2H + Their effects are reversed by Rx with high conc., of Sulfhydryl compounds. The organic compounds have utility in the Rx of infections of the mucous membranes. Medicinal Use of Heavy Metals


HEAVY METAL TOXICITY Symptoms of heavy metal toxicity include mental confusion, pain in muscles and joints, headaches, short-term memory loss, gastrointestinal upsets, food intolerances / allergies, vision problems, chronic fatigue, and others. The symptoms are so vague that it is difficult to diagnose based on symptoms alone. Symptoms will often begin to improve within weeks or even days of commencing treatment. Although complete cure is possible, many people suffer the effects of toxicity for extended periods. Some of the damage, for instance to the liver or brain, may not be fully reversible. Others find that their food intolerances will not be completely remedied. Only time will answer that question. Therapy may last from 6 months to 2 years.


TABLE SHOWING HEAVY METAL TOXICITY DETAILS NAME OF METAL Lethal Dose Theapeutic Dose Acute Poisoning Chronic Poisoning MERCURY 1 - 4 g (1 - 2 weeks) Nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea; headaches, weakness, visual disturbances, tachycardia, HTN CNS symptom; blue line at the junction of teeth & gums LEAD Lead acetate ~ 20 g Lead carbonate 30 g (1 - 20 days) Peripheral circula-tory collapse, insomnia, coma Strippled blue line (Burtonian line) ARSENIC 0.2 g Shock, GI symptoms, garlic smell of stools & breath CNS symptoms CADMIUM Skeletal demineralization COPPER Sulphate 30 g Subacetate 15 g (1 – 3 days) Vomited matter is blue or green; oliguria, hematuria Green line on gums, gradual anemia, peripheral neuritis ZINC Zn SO 4 15 g ZnCl 2 1 - 4 g Zn PO 3 0.5 - 1 g Zinc chills ANTIMONY Tartar emetic 0.5 - 1 g; Antimony tannate 0.1 - 0.2 g (24 Hrs) Similar to those of Arsenic GI disease


NORMAL TESTS REQUIRED Blood Tests : to find heavy metal content or routine tests) LFT : to find the effect on hepatic functioning RFT : to find the effect on kidneys Urine Analysis : to find the effect on excretion Fecal Tests : to find the excretion of heavy metals X-ray chest : recommended for persons with respiratory symptoms X-ray abdomen : to detect ingested metals. Hair & Finger-nail Analysis

Chelation Therapy :

Chelation Therapy Mercury, nickel, lead, and aluminum are all considered heavy (toxic) metals. They can enter our bodies from many sources including exhaust, cosmetics, paint, evaporated milk, infant formulas, baby powder, bleached white flour, pharmaceutical drugs, antacids, tooth paste, and aspirin. Heavy metals can block the natural detoxification processes . This can lead to fatigue, nutritional deficiencies, and numerous other health-related issues. Chelation therapy safely and effectively removes heavy metals from the body’s cells and tissues. The therapy can be helpful in improving blood circulation and can be part of the Personalized Treatment Plan for patients with various conditions.

Tests & Treatment for Heavy Metal Toxicity:

Tests & Treatment for Heavy Metal Toxicity The first step in treating any heavy metal toxicity is to identify the toxic elements and begin the removal process. The easiest screening process is a Hair Analysis . Additional testing involves the use of chelating drugs along with a 24-hour urine collection to determine levels of heavy metals. From here, treatment is based on the individual and will usually involve the use of metal chelating drugs or intravenous EDTA chelation . For many patients, intravenous Vitamin C and replacement mineral infusions are also recommended to support the body through the metal removal process. cont…

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Once laboratory tests indicate that the heavy metals are undetectable, treatment is considered complete. Often many - if not all - symptoms previously experienced will have resolved, though some may linger, indicating residual damage to organ systems. Therapies can then be targeted to these systems and any specific problems remaining.


conclusion It is evident that the safety issues were certainly addressed in the ancient Rasa Sastra works. When ever there is a possibility of toxicity, the rasa oushadhis were mentioned with one or other doshas (viz., parada sapta kanchuka doshas , trividha doshas etc) Where ever advocated, Sodhana (purification) & Marana ( calcination ) are mandatory to make the metallic / mineral ingredient safe. For example, both Naga (lead) and Vanga (tin) are indicated for prameha (renal filtration defects) if properly calcinated . But, they may casuse prameha ( nephrotoxicity ) if improperly prepared.

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Restriction of salt diet, while administering Kajjali is another proof of scientific approach in the ancient times. These references are indicating complete knowledge of ancient saints and seers about these heavy metals. The ayurvedic mineral or herbo -mineral drugs should be studied for ligand chemistry and chelate chemistry. Ayurvedic bhasmas are expected to be hydrophobic and lyophobic colloidal states / structures therefore, their journey is safe in side the body. supoorts the traditional approach of dose related safety of ayurvedic metallo -mineral and herbo -mineral formulations.

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Thus it may be concluded that, bhasmas of several minerals and heavy metals can be safety prescribed in the specified therapeutic dosage form / formulation after risk vs benefit analysis. IT IS THE ‘ CLINICAL SAFETY ’, BUT NOT THE LABORATORY TOXICITY WHICH COUNTS IN THE END.

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