BHASMAPREPARATION IN AYURVEDAM

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TO KNOW EVERY ONE ABOUT BHASMAS IN AYURVEDA.....

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BHASMAS Dr. M. SRINIVAS NAIK. M.D (RASSASTRA) PG DEPARTMENT OF RASA SASTRA GOVT AYURVEDIC COLLEGE VIJAYAWADA

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INTRODUCTION ♦ Bhasmas , which are unique Ayurvedic metallic preparations, treated with herbal juices or decoctions , and exposed for certain quantum of heat as per puta system of aurveda known in Indian sub continent since 7th century A.D. , and widely recommended for treatment of a variety of ailments . ♦ Concept of reduction in particle size of metals is prevailing since charaka samhita ♦ Bhasmas are claimed to be biologically produced nano particles (NPs), prescribed with several other medicines of Ayurveda. This study reviews Ayurvedic bhasmas are most ancient application of nano medicine. ♦ Smaller the particle better the potency is applicable to nano technology as well as bhasma procedures too. Particle size for easy absorption, assimilation and excretion. ♦ Nano meter means one billionth of a metre(Richard E.Smalley 1943-2005) ♦ One blood cell diameter = 7000 nm. ♦ Human hair width=80,000nm . ♦ One comma (,) occupies 5,00,000nm. ♦ If Acharya NAGARJUNA was alive, he would be awarded noble prize for his work on bhasmas. ♦ It studies the structure and behavior of materials at atomic or molecular level . ♦ Nano technology has ability to work at these levels, to generate larger structures with new molecular organisms.

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IMPORTANT PROCEDURES FOR MAKING BHASMAS Pre-treatment Shodhana Main treatment Marana Post operative treatments Lohitikaranam, amrutikaranam Bhasmas are being prepared by PUTA method and KUPI PAKWA method. For metals having low M.P.(Lead, tin, zinc) between shodhana and bhavana procedure one intermediate procedure called as JARANA is performed. PREPARATION OF BHASMA Metals and minerals are subjected to SHODANA and then mixed with specific drugs for MARANA and are levigated (BHAVANA) by particular liquid media for specified time. Chakrikas (pellets) are taken into earthen crucibles faced together. SHARAVASAMPUTIKARANA is subjected for heating in traditional puta. PUTA SYSTEM (heating grade) for a specific time limit. Finally prepared bhasma is collected.

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CHANGES In SHODANA tension is increased in matter by application of heat causing linear expansion. In MARANA elements are converted into certain compounds. Macro form of material converted into micro form. Heavy metals converted to light. In BHAVANA process particle surfaces chip and produce small particles. PUTA SYSTEM OF HEATING Puta is a unit of quantum of heat removes the blemishes of dosas. Each and every puta have different diameter according to quantity of fuel. FOUR CATAGORIES OF METALLIC BHASMAS Best Marana by Hg compounds Medium By vegetables Inferior By gandhaka, and gandhaka containing minerals. Discardibles Marana by ari lohas Gold, silver Laghu or kapota puta Vanga, naga, yasada Kukkuta puta Tamra Varaha puta Abhraka Gaja puta

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AYURVEDA BHASMAS AND NANO TECHNOLOGY During puta method size of particles of materials reduced. Bhasmas are nearer to nano crystalline materials. Ayurvedic concept of MARDANA and BHAVANA to reduce particle size is an ultimate result of these processes. In terms of nano technology, nano crystalline materials are solids composed of crystallites with size less than 100nm in at least 1 dimension( Surya narayana.C & Froes F H . structure and mechanical properties of metallic nano crystals) Puta is needed for different purposes. Simple therapeutic-10 to 100 putas Aphrodisiac ( vagikaran)-10 to 500 puts For immuno modulation( rasayana) 100 to 1000. DETECTION OF NANO PARTICLES IN BHASMA: Methodologies used to test nano particles are *Environmental electron microscopy *Scanning electron microscopy(SEM) *Transmission electron microscopy(TEM) *Fluorescence optical microscopy *Energy dispersive x-ray analysis(EDAX) *Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) *X-ray induced photo electron spectroscopy .

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PROCESS OF NANO PARTICLES TESTING IN BHASMAS INVOLVES 5 STEPS: To establish presence of nano particles in test sample. To ascertain whether chemical composition is homogenous. Whether nano particles are crystalline or amorphous Nature of defects in the sample Sample has to be biologically tested to check there bio activity BHASMAS AS NANO PARTICLES: Swarna bhasma(gold ash) has been characterized as globular particles of gold( avg size-56 to 57 nm) Swarna bhasma and gold NP`s prepared by modern method are quite comparable with respect to TEM analysis. Nano sized gold particles have been proven to be effective in ameliorating symptoms of mycobacterial, collagen, and pristine induced arthritis in rat model. Anti oxidant effect of swarna bhasma against global and focal models of ischaemia (stroke)have also been reported(Bajaj S & Vohara SB. Analgesic activity of gold preparations used in Ayurveda & unani-tibb) Physiological characterization of YASADHA BHASMA using modern techniques (XPS,ICP,EDAX,TEM,) reveal that yasadha bhasma particles are in oxygen deficient state and a clearly identifiable fraction of particles are in nano meter size range. RASA SINDOOR: (Sub-limed mercury compound) is contains mercury sulphide (crystalline size 25-50nm) associated with several organic macro molecules derived from plant extract used during processing of drug.

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CHARACTERISATION OF BHASMAS : COLOUR: Specific colour is mentioned for each bhasma. NISCHNDRATVA: Lusterless before therapeutic application. VAARITARATVA: Applied to study lightness and fineness of bhasma, is floating character of bhasma on stagnant water surface. UNAMA: A grain of rice is to be kept carefully on the layer of floated bhasma. If grain remains as it is on the layer, then bhasma can be considered as excellent. REKHA PURNATA: A little amount of bhasma is rubbed in between index finger and thumb to observe whether particles fill furrows of finger tips. SLAKSHNATVA: It is tactile sensation produced by bhasma by simple touch with finger tips. SUSUKSHMA: It indicates fineness of bhasma preparations. ANJANA SANNIBHA: It is smooth in character and does not create any irritation when ever applied. PARTICLE SIZE: Prepared bhasma should be in churna form. APUNARBHAVA: It means incapability to regain original metallic form

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CONCLUSION * Ayurveda is a serious medical system and has well developed systems of diagnosis and treatment. Hence it is baseless to fear about genuinity of bhasmas (NPs), and it is need less to say that they are quite worthy as nectar as they alleviate the disease from the root. * Manufacturing methods of bhasmas are in tune of nano technology of contemporary era and proved advancement of Ras sastra , a branch of Ayurveda which may cover scientific validation of today. * Ever since, it has been widely used by Ayurvedic doctors in India to reach millions of patients. If the metallic bhasmas not safe more than half of India would have died as a result of taking these medicines in all these years, and this could not have gone un noticed. * Other departments like physics, chemistry , bio technology, engineering, have now started research about nano technology especially our Ayurvedic bhasma preparation. * It is the only medical system in the world, which have apparatus to deal with complete human being, which comprises of mind, body& soul. * These metallic bhasma preparation( nano-particles) have been used as wonderful life saving drugs for thousands of year with out any adverse effects.

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