Incompatability of Aahara and Aushadha dravya and their

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Dr.M.Srinivas Naik

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Aahara and Aushadha dravya:

Aahara and Aushadha dravya Dr.M.Srinivas Naik

Classification of dravyaguna vigyan:

Classification of dravyaguna vigyan Dravyaguna vigyan Padartha vigyan Dravya vigyan (concepts) (study of drugs)

CLASSIFICATION OF DRAVYA BASED ON YONI:

CLASSIFICATION OF DRAVYA BASED ON YONI DRAVYA JANGAMA AUDBHIDA BHOUMA JARAYUJA SWEDAJA VANASPATI OSHADHI PRAKRITA KRITRIMA VEERUDH ANDAJA UDBHIJJA VAANASPATHYA

CLASSIFICATION OF DRAVYA BASED ON PRAYOGA:

CLASSIFICATION OF DRAVYA BASED ON PRAYOGA

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AAHARA AND AUSHADHA DRAVYA:

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AAHARA AND AUSHADHA DRAVYA AAHARA Aahara dravyas are Rasa pradhan. Aahara dravyas bring the changes in the body by nourishing the tissues, they also causes increase or decrease of doshas but not to such an extent as Aushadha dravya. AUSHADHA Aushadha dravyas are Veerya pradhan. Aushadha dravyas bring in the changes in the body in the form of either increase or decrease in gunas or doshas, but they won’t nourish the body tissues like Aahara dravyas.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AAHARA AND AUSHADHA DRAVYA:

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AAHARA AND AUSHADHA DRAVYA AAHARA Aahara dravyas are used to build and protect the body tissues hence used daily in respective annakala, according to ritu, agni,etc. Aahara dravyas are used daily and regularly in a dose which is quite larger than that of Aushadha. viz. general dose of Aahara dravya is 4 palas. AUSHADHA Aushadha dravyas are used according to a plan, stage, condition of the disease along with certain suitable Anupana and in a appropriate bheshaja kala and bheshja marga. Aushadha dravyas are used according to their potency (veerya) in the doses of karsha, pala, etc.viz.Teekshna veerya dravyas are given in a dose of 1 karsha.

CHARAKA & SUSHRUTA’S DRAVYA VARGEEKARANA:

CHARAKA & SUSHRUTA’S DRAVYA VARGEEKARANA As the survival of human being is the primary task and who is heavily dependent on aahara, in the beginning acharyas have started classification of aahara dravya and later aushadha dravyas. Acharya Charaka has classified dravya into 12 vargas which primarily comprises of aahara drvyas, and later he classified aushadha dravyas into 50 vargas.

CHARAKA & SUSHRUTA’S DRAVYA VARGEEKARANA:

CHARAKA & SUSHRUTA’S DRAVYA VARGEEKARANA Acharya Sushruta has classified the drugs which does not show the clear difference between aahara and aushadha as that charaka, because he has included mutra varga, kshara varga, ratna varga, dhatu varga, etc. along with aahara dravyas. Acharya sushruta has classified the drugs as anna dravya and drava dravya & later subdivided them into 13 & 10 groups. He has also classified the drugs into 37 vargas which primarily includes aushadha dravyas.

GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF AUSHADHA DRAVYA:

GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF AUSHADHA DRAVYA AUSHADHA URJASKARA ROGAGHNA RASAYANA VAJIKARANA PRASHAMANA APUNARBHAVAKARA

ADVERSE EFFECT OF AAHARA DRAVYAS:

ADVERSE EFFECT OF AAHARA DRAVYAS SL. NO. NAME OF THE RASAS (RASA PRADHANA DRAVYAS) DISEASES DUE TO ATIYOGA 1 MADHURA STOULYA, NETRAROGA, ARBUDA, KRIMI, SHWASA, KASA, ARUCHI, ETC 2 AMLA PITTAVRUDDHI, RAKTADOSHA, SHOTHA, PAKA, DAHA, SHITHILATA 3 LAVANA PITTAPRAKOPA, TRUSHNA, KUSTA, SHOPHA, VISARPA, NAPUMSAKATA 4 KATU NAPUMSAKATA, MURCHA, KRISHATA, BHRAMA, DAHA, TRUSHNA, ETC. 5 TIKTA DHATUSHOSHA, SROTOKHARATWA, DOURBALYA, BHRAMA,ETC. 6 KASHAYA MUKHASHOSHA,HRITSHULA,ARDITA, TRUSHNA, AADMANA,PAKSHAGHATA

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF AAHARA AND AUSHADHA DRAVYA:

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF AAHARA AND AUSHADHA DRAVYA To act on the body by any drug either it may be aahara or aushadha, it has to undergo vipaka except certain dravyas.viz. vyavayi dravyas. To bring in the desired effect on the body by any drug it has to undergo quality vipaka.i.e Vipaka of the dravya which is responsible for generating guna or dosha in the body. (C.D)

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF AAHARA AND AUSHADHA DRAVYA:

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF AAHARA AND AUSHADHA DRAVYA Vipaka means the ultimate change in the rasa of the dravya when it is subjected to the process of digestion by series of Agni,viz. Jataragni, Bhootagni, & Dhatwagni According to Chakrapani, aahara dravya pachana is under the influence of Dhatwagni as it results in dhatu roopa dosha utpatti. Where as aushadha dravya pachana is mainly by bhootagni as it causes gunatmaka parivarthana of dravya.

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF AAHARA AND AUSHADHA DRAVYA:

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF AAHARA AND AUSHADHA DRAVYA The term Vipaka of Ayurveda includes various chemical reactions to which food or medicine are subjected to in gastro intestinal tract during the process of digestion and absorption, as well as in various tissues where metabolism of these dravyas takes place with the participation of enzymes, oxygen, hormones, and other chemicals.

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF AAHARA AND AUSHADHA DRAVYA:

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF AAHARA AND AUSHADHA DRAVYA Drugs are sometimes metabolized by enzymes involved in intermediary metabolism. However the majority of the drugs are metabolized by hepatic enzymes that are not thought to participate in intermediary metabolism. (Goodman and Gillman) In the process of metabolism many waste materials and secondary metabolites are produced and these are usually expelled out of the body by many mechanisms, but on certain occasion they are harmful to the body hence acts as ”Incompatible.”

SYNERGISM & ANTAGONISM:

SYNERGISM & ANTAGONISM Except in Ekala dravya praoga on all other occasion usually combination of two or more dravyas are done and used it is called “Dravya samyoga”. Facilitation of a pharmacological response by the concomitant use of two or more drugs is called as drug Synergism, which is compatible to the body. (DR.Satoskar & DR. Bhandarkar)

SYNERGISM & ANTAGONISM:

SYNERGISM & ANTAGONISM This pharmacological co-operation usually results in a total effect greater than the sum of their independent actions. This type of synergism is also applicable to food materials. Ex: for synergism Combination of Punarnava+Mandoora Combination of Triphala+Aiyas(loha) Pippali, if given along with other medicines it enhances the bio availability of that medicine.

SYNERGISM & ANTAGONISM:

SYNERGISM & ANTAGONISM The phenomenon of opposing actions of two drugs on the same physiological system is termed as drug Antagonism . ( DR.Satoskar & DR. Bhandarkar ) It is presumed that this antagonism takes place either in the blood or in the tissues. ( R.Ghosh - Materia Medica ) Many a times dravya samyoga acts as harmful to the body. This harmful combination is called as “ Viruddha ” or “ Incompatibility ”. Ex: For Antagonism Combination of Matsya and Dugdha Combination of Madhu and Ghrita in sama pramana .

Incompatible / Unwholesome drugs & diets:

Incompatible / Unwholesome drugs & diets Such drugs & diets as they oppose dhatus and doshas in the body are termed as Unwholesome or Incompatible. They act by Their mutually contradictory qualities. Their combination Their method of preparation Their virtue of the place, time and dose. Their inherent nature. (ch. Su. 26/81)

Incompatible / Unwholesome drugs & diets:

Incompatible / Unwholesome drugs & diets All drugs and diets which dislodge the various doshas in the body but do not expel them out of the body and becomes the cause for toxic or disease manifestations are to be regarded as “ Viruddha ” or “ Incompatible ” or “ Unwholesome ”. (Ch. Su. 26/85)

TYPES OF INCOMPATIBILITY:

TYPES OF INCOMPATIBILITY DESHA VIRUDDHA- Intake of ruksha & teekshna dravyas in marubhumi or vata pradesha, intake of snigdha & sheeta dravyas in aanupa pradesha. KALA VIRUDDHA- Intake of sheeta & ruksha during sheeta kala, intake of ushna & katudravyas in summer. AGNI VIRUDDHA- Intake of guru dravya in mandagni, intake of laghu dravya in teekshnagni.

TYPES OF INCOMPATIBILITY:

TYPES OF INCOMPATIBILITY 4. MATRA VIRUDDHA- Intake of honey and ghee in equal quantity. 5. SATMYA VIRUDDHA- Intake of sheeta madhura dravya by a person who is accustomed to katu and ushna dravyas. 6. DOSHA VIRUDDHA- In vata vikara ruksha & sheeta dravya prayoga. 7. SAMSKARA VIRUDDHA- Meat of peacock roasted in castor spit.

TYPES OF INCOMPATIBILITY:

TYPES OF INCOMPATIBILITY 8. VEERYA VIRUDDHA- Intake of a combination having contrast potency dugs. 9. KOSTA VIRUDDHA- Administering of mild drug in krura kosta , and strong drug in mrudu kosta . 10. AVASTHA VIRUDDHA- Intake of vatakara dravya by a person after exhaustion, sexual act, physical exercise, intake of kaphakara dravya by aperson who is sleepy, tandrapeedita . 11. KRAMA VIRUDDHA- If a person consumes aahara without shoucha karma or before previous meal is digested.

TYPES OF INCOMPATIBILITY:

TYPES OF INCOMPATIBILITY 12. PARIHAR VIRUDDHA- consuming hot water after varaha mamsa sevana. 13. UPACHARA VIRUDDHA- Consuming cold water after ghritapana. 14. PAKA VIRUDDHA- Intake of apakwa, dagdha, atipakwa aahara. 15. SAMYOGA VIRUDDHA- Intake of sour substance with milk.

TYPES OF INCOMPATIBILITY:

TYPES OF INCOMPATIBILITY 16. HRIDVIRUDDHA- Aruchikara aahara sevana . 17. SAMPAT VIRUDDHA- Intake of substances that are not matured, over matured or putrefied. 18. VIDHI VIRUDDHA- Taking meals in public. (Ch. Su 26/86-101) However in general viruddha is of 3 basic types, viz. MANA, GUNA & KARMA VIRUDDHA.

TOXIC / ADVERSE MANIFESTATIONS OF INCOMPATIBLE / UNWHOLESOME DRUGS & DIETS:

TOXIC / ADVERSE MANIFESTATIONS OF INCOMPATIBLE / UNWHOLESOME DRUGS & DIETS RAKTA DOSHA KUSTA VIBHANDHA RAKTA VIKARA AAMAVISHA BADIRYA DRUSTI NASHA SMRUTI NASHA SWARA BHANGA UNMADA SHANKHAKA GALAGANDA BALAHANI PRABHAHANI SHUKRA NASHA NAPUMSAKATA VISARPA UDARA VISPHOTA BHAGANDARA MURCHA MADA PANDU SHOTHA AADHMANA JWARA PEENASA GRAHANI AMLAPITTA SANTANA DOSHA MRUTYU (Ch. Su. 26/102-103)

TYPES OF AAHARA & AUSHADHA:

TYPES OF AAHARA & AUSHADHA AAHARA PEYA LEHYA BHOJYA BHAKSHYA CHOOSHYA KHADHYA CHARVYA NISHPEYA (DH. NI.) AUSHADHA SHAMANA KOPANA SWASTHAHITA

COMPATIBLE FOODS:

COMPATIBLE FOODS Only beneficial foods should be consumed because it is responsible for maintaining good state of health. One has to consume food by due regards to Prakriti, Karana, Samyoga, Rashi, Desha, Kala, Upayogasamstha, & Upayokta. (Ch. Vi. 1/21)

NATURAL COMPATIBLE DRAVYAS:

NATURAL COMPATIBLE DRAVYAS SHALI GODHUMA YAVA SHASTIKA SHALI JANGALA MAMSA RASA JIVANTI PATHYA AMALAKA SUNISHANNAKA MRIDWIKA PATOLA MUDGA SHARKARA GHRITA DIVYODAKA KSHEERA KSHOUDRA DADIMA SAINDHAVA TILA TAILA SHRINGAVERA (A.H.Su.8/42-45)

POSOLOGY & INCOMPATIBILITY:

POSOLOGY & INCOMPATIBILITY Fixing the exact dose of any drug or diet is very necessary to achieve the desired results. Many factors are involved in deciding the dose, like Aayu, Linga, Desha, Bala, Roga, Kala, Agni, Avastha, Dosha, Kosta, Dravya, Abhyasa, Kalpa, etc.

ANUPANA & INCOMPATIBILITY:

ANUPANA & INCOMPATIBILITY Any dravyas or drinks which are consumed along with or followed by the main drug or diet is called as Anupana. Anupana in general brings about refreshment, pleasure, energy, nourishment, satisfaction, and helps in breakdown, softening, digesting, proper assimilation and instant diffusion of food & diet consumed. (Ch.Su.26/325) Significance of anupana with respect to aushadha is that , it helps drugs to spread faster in the body. (Shag. Sam.)

ANUPANA & INCOMPATIBILITY:

ANUPANA & INCOMPATIBILITY General anupanas: SHEETA JALA USHNA JALA AASAVA MADHU YUSHA PHALAMLA DUGDHA MAMSA RASA MADHYA GHRITA TANDULODAKA SWARASA HIMA PHANTA ARKA, ETC.

ANUPANA & INCOMPATIBILITY:

ANUPANA & INCOMPATIBILITY Anupana is decided based on the aahara, aushadha, roga ,rogi, dosha etc. factors. Generally post food drinks should have the qualities which are opposite to those of the foodstuff consumed, but such drinks should not be unwholesome with the body. In vata vruddha avastha-snigdha, ushna anupana is best, in pitta vruddha avastha-madhura, sheeta anupana is best, and in kapha vruddha avastha-ruksha, ushna anupana is best.

ANUPANA & INCOMPATIBILITY:

ANUPANA & INCOMPATIBILITY Generally in case of aushadha, the anupana selected will be having supportive qualities to the main drug used. After yava and godhuma padartha sevana sheetajala is good anupana. Madhoodaka is good for sthula rogi. Mamsarasa is good for krisha rogi. In shoola, hingu and ghrita is best as anupana. In jeerna jwara along with main drug pippali and madhu acts as best anupana.

ANUPANA & INCOMPATIBILITY:

ANUPANA & INCOMPATIBILITY In Vata vyadhi- ghrita and rasona is best anupana. In swasa- trikatu and kshoudra is best anupana, In grahani- takra is the best anupana. In raktapitta- vasa is best anupana. In ajeerna- ushnodaka is best anupana. In kshaya- ksheera and mamsarasa is best anupana. In jwara- musta+parpata is the anupana. (As.S.Su.23)

BHAISHAJYA KALA & INCOMPATIBILITY:

BHAISHAJYA KALA & INCOMPATIBILITY SL.NO. CHARAKA VAGBHATA SHARANGADHARA 1. BHAKTADAU ABHAKTA SURYODAYA 2. BHAKTAMADHYA PRAGBHAKTA DIVASA BHOJANA 3. MUHURMUHUHU MADHYA BHAKTA SAYAM BHOJANA 4. SAMUDGA ADHO BHAKTA MUHURMUHUHU 5. BHAKTA SAMYUTA SAMA BHAKTA NISHI 6. SAGRASA ANTAR BHAKTA 7. GRASANTHARA SAMUDGA 8. NISHI MUHURMUHUHU 9. SAGRASA 10. GRASANTARA 11. NISHI

BHAISHAJYA KALA & INCOMPATIBILITY:

BHAISHAJYA KALA & INCOMPATIBILITY If apanavayu is vitiated , then the medicine should be given before food. (pragbhakta) If samanavayu is vitiated, then medicine should be given during the meal. (madhya bhakta) If vyanavayu is vitiated, then medicine should be given after the morning meal. (divasa bhojana, adho bhakta) If udanavayu is vitiated, then medicine should be given after the night meal. (sayam bhojana, ) If pranavayu is vitiated, then medicine should be given along with each morsel of food or in between the morsels of the food. (sagrasa, grasantara) In cases of shwasa, kasa, hikka, thrishna medicine is given in short intervals repeatedly. (muhurmuhuhu)

BHAISHAJYA KALA & INCOMPATIBILITY:

BHAISHAJYA KALA & INCOMPATIBILITY In diseases of Kapha and pitta for the purpose of vamana & virechana and for lekhana medicines are given in suryodaya. In diseases of head, for brimhana, for shamana, for pachana medicines to be given in nishi on empty stomach. The frequency of drug administration is mainly determined by its biological half life.

INCOMPATIBLES:

INCOMPATIBLES As per charaka chikitsa kulatta and shilajatu should not be mixed. Or when shilajatu is being consumed kulatta should not be given.

INCOMPATIBLES:

INCOMPATIBLES Honey should not be boiled or heated (people consuming honey mixing it with hot milk.)

INCOMPATIBLES:

INCOMPATIBLES At a time one variety of fruit should be consumed. (people consuming fruit salad)

INCOMPATIBLES:

INCOMPATIBLES Fruits and milk should not be mixed . (But people consuming banana milk shake, apple milk shake, chikku milk shake, mango milk shake.)

INCOMPATIBLES:

INCOMPATIBLES Eating in public or hotels which is vidhi viruddha. Not to speak or laugh while eating. (Nowadays people talk & laugh while eating.)

INCOMPATIBLES:

INCOMPATIBLES One should not consume water at the end of food or meals. Consuming dadhi at night is incompatible and even making it hot is incompatible. Dadhi should not be consumed during vasanta, greeshma, sharad ritu, if it is consumed leads to jwara, raktapitta, visarpa, kusta, pandu, shirobhrama.

INCOMPATIBLES:

INCOMPATIBLES Milk and ghee of sheep are natural incompatible. Takra or Dadhi should be boiled or heated. (people across India prepare a dish by names kadhi, avil, majjige huli etc. where in it is heated or boiled.) If honey is consumed by making it hot by a person who is afflicted with ushnata during summer along with hot food leads to death.

INCOMPATIBLES:

INCOMPATIBLES Viroodaka (sprouted grains), Vada (Mashandari) made out of Mudga or Masha if consumed it leads to Angaglani, Drusti nasha and it is Dosha karaka.

INCOMPATIBLES:

INCOMPATIBLES Chilichima matsya is Doshakaraka. Chilichima matsya (prawns) with milk is incompatible.

INCOMPATIBLES:

INCOMPATIBLES Sarshapa shaka is incompatible. For pitta prakrithi person – lashuna is not good. Ripened bilwa is not good . Navannapana is incompatible. Haritaki is incompatible/contraindicated in Taruna jwara. Consuming Aanupa mamsa and followed it by consuming Masha, kshoudra, dugdha, virudaka acts viruddha.

INCOMPATIBLES:

INCOMPATIBLES Aama mulaka (fresh raddish) is doshakaraka but dry raddish is good. After consuming Moolaka, ksheerapana should not be done.

INCOMPATIBLES:

INCOMPATIBLES Pippali should not be consumed in excess and it is to be consumed according to rasayana vidhi. Amlarasa yukta phala and milk should not be mixed and consumed. Kulatta, Varaka, Kangu (vreehi bheda), Makustaka are incompatible to one another. ( people eat mix dal). Combining two or more variety of mamsa is also incompatible.

INCOMPATIBLES:

INCOMPATIBLES Masha yusha + mulaka is incompatible. Lakucha should not be consumed with masha yusa, guda, dugdha, ghrita. Kadali phala + takra or dadhi is incompatible. Payasa+sura, sura+ krishara acts incompatible. Madhu, ghrita, vasa, taila, gangambu any two or three or all should not be mixed in samapramana and consumed.

INCOMPATIBLES:

INCOMPATIBLES If upodika (Basella alba) mixed with tila kalka and consumed results in Atisara. If Mamsa of mayura or lava or kapinjala cooked with eranda taila in castor spit and consumed leads to sadhyo marana. Mamsa of Dove + Pushkara (Nelumbo nucifera) should not be consumed together as it leads to Shankhaka, galaganda, death.

FACTS & TREATMENT OF INCOMPATIBILITY:

FACTS & TREATMENT OF INCOMPATIBILITY Viruddha or incompatibles if consumed little by little it becomes satmya and won’t cause disease. The person who regularly does vyayama and has good agnibala, balashali, madhya vayaska if consume viruddha aahara he will withstand it and it won’t cause roga to him. Viruddha aahara abhyasa should be left step by step and pathya aahara should be consumed step by step in increasing order. Purgation, emesis, antidotes, and prophylaxis with pathya aahara is the line of treatment.

INCOMPATIBLE:

INCOMPATIBLE THANK YOU

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