IMMUNOLOGICAL SYNAPSE

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IMMUNOLOGICAL SYNAPSE :

IMMUNOLOGICAL SYNAPSE SRIGOURI S. 4 TH TERM ROLL NO.52

INTRODUCTION :

INTRODUCTION A n  immunological synapse  (or  immune synapse ) is the interface between an antigen presenting cell or target cell and a lymphocyte such as an T cell or Natural Killer cell. The immune synapse is also known as the  supramolecular activation cluster  or  SMAC.

HISTORY:

HISTORY It was first discovered by Abraham Kupfer. He showed three dimensional images of immune cells interacting with one another. The term was coined by Michael Dustin.

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Any stable contact zone between an immune cell and another cell at which molecules accumulate with cytoskeletal polarization, segregation of molecules within zone, and polarised exocytosis’ They were named immunological synapse based on similarity to neurological synapse.

IS formation by other lymphocytes:

IS formation by other lymphocytes Initially ‘classic’ IS formation was observed in CD4 T cells Now also observed in: CD8 cells NK cells Partial IS formation has been observed in thymocytes (segregation is atypical and unstable, no polarized secretion observed) B cells (no segregation or polarised secretion observed)

Mechanisms of redistribution/segregation of molecules at the cell surface:

Mechanisms of redistribution/segregation of molecules at the cell surface Passive (binding and steric factors) Active lateral movement on the surface polarised exocytosis of vesicular stores

PowerPoint Presentation:

This structure is composed of concentric rings each containing segregated clusters of proteins:.   c-SMAC  (central-SMAC) composed of theta isoform  of  protein kinaseC [3]  CD2, CD4, CD8, CD28, Lck, and Fyn. p-SMAC  (peripheral-SMAC) in the lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and the cytoskeletal protein talin are clustered. d-SMAC  (distal-SMAC) enriched in CD43 and CD45 molecules.

FUNCTIONS:

FUNCTIONS This complex as a whole is postulated to have several functions including but not limited to: Regulation of lymphocyte activation Transfer of peptide-MHC complexes from APCs to lymphocytes Direct secretion of cytokines or lytic granules

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