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CONTENT The transportation in human beings. The transportation in plants . The diseases caused due to damage. in transportation in human beings . Causes of kidney failure . Symptoms of kidney failure. Treatment of kidney failure . Preventive measures of kidney failure .

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Transportation in Human beings :- The main transport system in human beings is the circulatory system. It consists of blood, arteries, veins capillaries and heart. It transports food, oxygen and waste products. It consists of plasma, red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and platelets. Plasma transports food, water, carbon dioxide, nitrogenous waste etc. Red blood cells transports oxygen. White blood cells kills harmful microbes and protects the body. Platelets help in clotting of blood and prevents loss of blood during injury. BLOOD

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Arteries :- carry pure blood from the heart to all parts of the body. They are thick walled and do not have valves. Veins :- carry impure blood from all parts of the body to the heart. They are thin walled and have valves. Capillaries :- are very narrow blood vessels which connects arteries and veins together. The exchange of food, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide etc. between the blood and cells take place through the capillaries.

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Heart :- is a muscular organ which pumps blood to all parts of the body. It has four chambers. The upper chambers are called atria and the lower chambers are called ventricles. Since the ventricles pump blood to the different organs its walls are thicker than the atria. The right and left chambers are separated by a septum. It prevents the mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood The atria and ventricles have valves between them to prevent blood flowing backward. vein artery xxxxxxxx heart xxxx

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Working of the heart (Circulation of blood) :-

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When the left atrium relaxes oxygenated blood from the lungs flows into it through the pulmonary vein. When it contracts, the left ventricle expands and the blood flows into it. Then the left ventricle contracts and the oxygenated blood is pumped out through the aorta to all parts of the body. After circulating through all parts of the body the deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium through the vena cava. When the right atrium contracts, the right ventricle expands and the blood flows into it. Then the right ventricle contracts and the blood is pumped to the lungs through the pulmonary artery. In the lungs carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen is absorbed and the oxygenated blood again enters the left atrium and the process repeats. Since blood flows through the heart twice in one cycle, it is called double circulation. Working of the heart ( Circulation of blood )

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It is a colour less fluid present in intercellular spaces. It is formed from the plasma which escapes from the capillaries. Lymph drains into lymphatic capillaries which forms lymph vessels and joins into large veins. Lymph transports digested fats and drains excess fluids from intercellular spaces back into the blood. It contains lymphocytes which kills germs and protects the body Lymph

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Hearts of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and fishes The heart in mammals The heart in mammals and birds have four chambers and the right and left sides of the heart is separated by a septum. This prevents mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood and provides efficient supply of oxygen. This is necessary because they need more energy to maintain their body temperature.

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The heart in amphibians and reptiles The heart in amphibians and reptiles have three chambers and allows some mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood because the do not use energy to maintain their body temperature. Their body temperature is the same as the temperature of the surroundings.

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The heart in fishes The heart in fishes have only two chambers and blood is oxygenated in the gills.

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Transportation in plants In plants, transportation of materials like food, water and minerals takes place through conducting tissues called xylem and phloem. Xylem It transports water and minerals from the roots to all parts of the plant. It consists of xylem vessels and tracheids. Water and minerals enter the roots by diffusion. Then due to transpiration, the suction force helps in the upward movement of water an minerals

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Phloem It transports food from the leaves to the other parts of the plant. This process is called translocation. The phloem consists of sieve tubes and companion cells. Food from the leaves is transferred to the xylem by the energy of ATP molecules. Due to osmotic pressure water enters the phloem and helps in the transport of food.

The disease caused due to Damage in transportation system :

The disease caused due to Damage in transportation system

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Content The diseases caused due to damage in transportation system. Causes of kidney failure Symptoms of kidney failure How is kidney failure diagnosed? What is the prognosis for someone with kidney failure? Treatment of kidney failure Preventive measures of kidney failure Diet Medications Dialysis Kidney transplantation

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The diseases caused due to damage in transporting system Kidney failure (renal failure ). There are two types of kidney failure. Chronic renal failure.(CRF). Acute renal failure . (ARF). Note : we will learn about chronic renal failure and acute renal failure in higher class

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Kidney disease is one of the costliest illnesses in the world and managing kidney disease is very expensive . Each year, lots of people die of kidney disease all over the world, and the number of people suffering from chronic renal failure, and need dialysis or kidney transplantation to stay alive keep increasing . Statistics have it that, worldwide, more than millions patients are waiting for kidney transplants, but only a few thousands will receive transplants because of shortage of suitable organ donors . Patients usually felt surprised when they are diagnosed of Kidney Failure . Experts have found the explanation from your daily life habits . Here are the top habits which lead to your kidney failure: Kidney diseases

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What is Kidney Failure? Not able to remove waste and extra water from the blood or keep body chemicals in balance. Needs the help of a Dialysis machine.

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Common Habits that damage the kidneys 1. Not emptying your bladder early: Maintaining a full bladder for a long time is a quick way of causing bladder damage. That the urine stays in the bladder for a long time can cause the bacteria breeding in urine to multiply quickly. Once the urine refluxes back to ureter and kidneys, the bacteria can result in kidney infections, then urinary tract infection, and then nephritis, even Uremia. So, no matter how busy you are, remember to drink a lot of water and urinate regularly. Once you form the habit of holding back urine, it will ultimately damage your kidneys. Common Habits that damage the kidneys.(causes of kidney failure)

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2. Not drinking enough water: The main functions of the kidneys are to regulate erythrocyte balances and eliminate metabolic wastes in urine. If we do not drink enough water, the blood will be concentrated and the blood flow to the kidney will not be adequate, thus the function of eliminating toxins in from blood will be impaired.

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3 . Taking too much salt: 95% sodium we consume through food is metabolized by the kidneys. Exceeding the salt intake will make the kidneys work harder to excrete the excess salt and can lead to decreased kidney function. This excess sodium will cause water retention, causing edema. Edema usually elevates blood pressure and increases the risk of developing kidney disease. The daily salt intake should be controlled within 6g per day.

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4. Not treating common infections quickly and properly: Common infections, such as pharyngitis , tonsillitis, common cold etc, usually triggers or aggravates kidney damage. They do this by causing an acute attack of acute glomerulonephritis or chronic nephritis. So, you will see that people who get kidney disease for the first time or whose illness condition becomes worse usually present in hospitals with a history of cold or sore throat. If after having cold, symptoms like blood in urine, swelling, headache, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, poor appetite appear, you should consult your doctor immediately, to assess your kidney functions, and start treatment if compromised.

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5. Eating too much meat: Eating too much meat and protein can increase the metabolic load of the kidney. For those suffering from proteinuria , meat consumption too may aggravate protein leakage, worsening renal pathological lesion. It is suggested that protein intake should be 0.8g/kg per day. This means that a person with 50 kg should consume 40g of protein per day. Meat consumption per day should be limited within 300g.

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6.Not eating enough: This is equally as dangerous as eating too much, both of them will lead damages to your digestive organs where is full of mucosal tissues. Mucosal tissues relates closely to your immune system. This is why many kidney failure patients are diagnosed with "autoimmune kidney damages".

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7. Painkiller abuse: The use of analgesics for a prolonged duration may reduce the flow blood and greatly affect kidney function. In addition, patients with analgesic-induced renal failure are more likely to suffer from bladder cancer. Use analgesics only when it's absolutely necessary, learn to rest instead of taking to the bottles. If you have been on pain killers for a long term, it's about time you had a test to access you renal function done

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8. Missing your drugs: Hypertension and diabetes have been shown to precipitate or accelerate kidney damage, so if you are diagnosed as having any of these disease don't live your life in denial, USE YOUR DRUGS. This will ultimately help control your condition while also helping to preserve your kidneys . 9. Drinking too much alcohol: Drinking alcohol without limitation may cause the deposition of uric acid in renal tubules, causing tubular obstruction and increasing risks of kidney failure.

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10. Not resting enough: In our society, hypertension as a severe threat to life is largely due to stress. A common symptom of stress is insomnia. Blood pressure may increase by an average of 2-5mg/Hg because of insomnia. Chronically elevated blood pressure can cause damage to kidney capillaries giving rise to kidney problems. Thus, we need to develop a good attitude to life and strike a good balance between work and rest to protect your kidneys and live a healthy life.

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At the early stage of kidney diseases, there are usually no the special symptoms, so lots of patients are not diagnosed until the acute attack appears or the illness condition develops into the late stage. So you should endeavor to do kidney function test from time to time to assess how healthy your kidneys are. Never ignore the soreness of waist, swelling of the feet, changes in urine color or volume, increase in night urination, palor , high blood pressure and other such symptoms. Once found, you should go and see your doctor immediately Conclusion of causes of kidney damage

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Is kidney failure permanent? Usually, but not always. Some kinds of acute kidney failure get better after treatment. In some cases of acute kidney failure, dialysis may only be needed for a short time until the kidneys get better. In chronic or end stage kidney failure, your kidneys do not get better and you will need dialysis for the rest of your life. If your doctor says you are a candidate, you may choose to be placed on a waiting list for a new kidney.

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Symptoms of kidney failure Most people are not aware of the fact that kidney diseases can be silent killers. They may not show any symptoms for a long time till the situation becomes critical. It is important to recognize the symptoms of kidney diseases to catch them early. Here is a list of twelve such symptoms you should look out for : Changes in your urinary function:   The first symptom of kidney disease is changes in the amount and frequency of your urination. There may be an increase or decrease in amount and/or its frequency, especially at night. It may also look more dark coloured. You may feel the urge to urinate but are unable to do so when you get to the restroom. Difficulty or pain during voiding:   Sometimes you have difficulty or feel pressure or pain while voiding. Urinary tract infections may cause symptoms such as pain or burning during urination. When these infections spread to the kidneys they may cause fever and pain in your back.

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Blood in the urine:  This is a symptom of kidney disease which is a definite cause for concern. There may be other reasons, but it is advisable to visit your doctor in case you notice it. Swelling:   Kidneys remove wastes and extra fluid from the body. When they are unable to do so, this extra fluid will build up causing swelling in your hands, feet, ankles and/or your face. Extreme fatigue and generalised weakness:   Your kidneys produce a hormone called erythropoietin which helps make red blood cells that carry oxygen. In kidney disease lower levels of erythropoietin causes decreased red blood cells in your body resulting in anaemia.  There is decreased oxygen delivery to cells causing generalised weakness and extreme fatigue.

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Dizziness & Inability to concentrate:   Anaemia associated with kidney disease also depletes your brain of oxygen which may cause dizziness, trouble with concentration, etc. Feeling cold all the time:   If you have kidney disease you may feel cold even when in a warm surrounding due to anaemia. Pyelonephritis (kidney infection) may cause   fever with chills. Skin rashes and itching:   Kidney failure causes waste build-up in your blood. This can causes severe itching and skin rashes. Ammonia breath and metallic taste:   Kidney failure increases level of urea in the blood (uremia). This urea is broken down to ammonia in the saliva causing urine-like bad breath called ammonia breath. It is also usually associated with an unpleasant metallic taste (dyspepsia) in the mouth. Nausea and vomiting:   The build-up of waste products in your blood in kidney disease can also cause nausea and vomiting.

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Shortness of breath:   Kidney disease causes fluid to build up in the lungs. And also, anaemia, a common side-effect of kidney disease, starves your body of oxygen. You may have trouble catching your breath due to these factors. Pain in the back or sides : Some cases of kidney disease may cause pain. You may feel a severe cramping pain that spreads from the lower back into the groin if there is a kidney stone in the ureter. Pain may also be related to polycystic kidney disease, an inherited kidney disorder, which causes many fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys. Interstitial cystitis, a chronic inflammation of the bladder wall, causes chronic pain and discomfort. It is important to identify kidney disease early because in most cases the damage in the kidneys can’t be undone. To reduce your chances of getting severe kidney problems, see your doctor when you observe one or more of the above symptoms. If caught early, kidney disease can be treated very effectively

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Kidney failure facts Kidneys are the organs that help filter waste products from the blood. They are also involved in regulating blood pressure, electrolyte balance, and red blood cell production in the body. There are numerous causes of kidney failure, and treatment of the underlying disease may be the first step in correcting the kidney abnormality. Some causes of kidney failure are treatable and the kidney function may return to normal. Unfortunately, kidney failure may be progressive in other situations and may be irreversible Symptoms of kidney failure are due to the build-up of waste products in the body that may cause   weakness,   shortness of breath, lethargy, andconfusion. Inability to remove potassium from the bloodstream may lead to abnormal heart rhythms and sudden death. Initially, there may be no symptoms of kidney failure.

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The diagnosis of kidney failure usually is made by blood tests measuring BUN, creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Treatment of the underlying cause of kidney failure may return kidney function to normal. Lifelong efforts to control blood pressure and diabetes may be the best way to prevent chronic kidney disease and its progression to kidney failure. Usually, kidney function gradually decreases over time. If the kidneys fail completely, the only treatment options available may be dialysis or transplant.

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How is kidney failure diagnosed? Diagnosis of kidney failure is confirmed by blood tests measuring the buildup of waste products in the blood. BUN, creatinine, and GFR are routine blood tests used to measure the buildup of waste products in the blood. BUN and creatinine become elevated, and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreases. This is the rate with which blood is filtered through the kidneys and can be calculated based upon the creatinine level, age, race, and gender. Urine tests may be done to measure the amount of protein, detect the presence of abnormal cells, or measure the concentration of electrolytes. Protein in the urine is not normal and can be a clue that damage to the kidneys has occurred. When the urine is examined under a microscope, abnormal aggregations of red and white blood cells called casts can be seen in the urine with kidney disease. Comparing the concentrations of electrolytes in the blood and urine can help decide whether the kidneys are able to appropriately monitor and filter blood.

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Other tests are used to diagnose the type of kidney failure. Abdominal  ultrasound  can assess the size of the kidneys and may identify whether any obstruction exists. Biopsy of the kidney uses a thin needle that is placed through the skin into the kidney itself to get bits of tissue to examine under the microscope

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What is the prognosis for someone with kidney failure? The outlook for kidney failure depends upon the underlying condition that caused it. Kidney function may return to normal, especially if it is due to an acute obstruction and that obstruction is relieved. Other causes of decreased kidney function leading to kidney failure are due to underlying disease and occur slowly over time. Prevention is the best chance to maintain kidney function, and controlling high blood pressure and diabetes over a lifetime can decrease the potential for progressive kidney damage. Chronic kidney failure may be managed by a primary health care practitioner or a nephrologist to help monitor electrolyte and waste product levels in the bloodstream. Major abnormalities can be life-threatening, and treatment options may be limited to dialysis or transplant

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Prevention is always the goal with kidney failure. Chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes are devastating because of the damage that they can do to kidneys and other organs. Lifelong diligence is important in keeping blood sugar and blood pressure within normal limits. Specific treatments are dependent upon the underlying diseases. Once kidney failure is present, the goal is to prevent further deterioration of renal function. If ignored, the kidneys will progress to complete failure, but if underlying illnesses are addressed and treated aggressively, kidney function can be preserved, though not always improved . What is the treatment for kidney failure?

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Treating and Preventing Kidney Disease Treatment of kidney disease depends on the type of disease, the underlying cause, and the duration of the disease. When treating kidney disease, your doctor will try to treat the original cause.  Kidney infections can be treated with antibiotics if the infection is caused by bacteria. Inflammation due to an immune reaction is more difficult to treat. However, your doctor will try and control the immune reaction with immunosuppressant medications such as  corticosteroids . These work only in some types of nephritis  (inflammation of the kidney).

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Some people have to eat less salt and protein until the kidney can remove these substances from the blood properly. Taking a diuretic medication (or "water pills") to make the body excrete more water and salt can also help control the swelling associated with kidney disease. If someone has acute kidney failure, treating the underlying cause will often return kidney function to normal. In almost all cases of kidney failure, it is very important for high blood pressure to be treated aggressively to prevent further damage from occurring and to delay the progression of the disease.

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Diet Diet is an important consideration for those with impaired kidney function. Consultation with a dietician may be helpful to understand what foods may or may not be appropriate. Since the kidneys cannot easily remove excess water, salt, or potassium, these may need to be consumed in limited quantities. Foods high in potassium include bananas, apricots, and salt substitutes. Phosphorus is a forgotten chemical that is associated with calcium metabolism and may be elevated in the body in kidney failure. Too much phosphorus can leech calcium from the bones and cause osteoporosis and fractures. Foods with high phosphorus content include milk, cheese, nuts, and cola drinks.

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Medications Medications may be used to help control some of the issues associated with kidney failure. Red blood cell production stimulation Red blood cell production (iron supplements) Blood pressure medications Vitamins Once the kidneys fail completely, the treatment options are limited to dialysis or kidney replacement by transplantation.

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Dialysis Dialysis cleanses the body of waste products in the body by use of filter systems. There are two types of dialysis; 1) hemodialysis, and 2) peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis Hemodialysis uses a machine filter called a dialyzer or artificial kidney to remove excess water and salt, to balance the other electrolytes in the body, and to remove waste products of metabolism. Blood is removed from the body and flows through tubing into the machine, where it passes next to a filter membrane. A specialized chemical solution (dialysate) flows on the other side of the membrane. The dialysate is formulated to draw impurities from the blood through the filter membrane. Blood and dialysate never touch in the artificial kidney machine.

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For this type of dialysis, access to the blood vessels needs to be surgically created so that large amounts of blood can flow into the machine and back to the body. Surgeons can build a fistula, a connection between a large artery and vein in the body, usually in the arm, that causes a large amount of blood flow into the vein. This makes the vein larger and its walls thicker so that it can tolerate repeated needle sticks to attach tubing from the body to the machine. Since it takes many weeks for a fistula to mature enough to be used, significant planning is required if hemodialysis is to be considered as an option.

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If the kidney failure happens acutely and there is no time to build a fistula, special catheters may be inserted into the larger blood vessels of the arm, leg, or chest. These catheters may be left in place for up to three weeks. In some diseases, the need for dialysis will be temporary, but if the expectation is that dialysis will continue for a prolonged period of time, these catheters act as a bridge until a fistula can be planned, placed, and matured. Dialysis treatments normally occur three times a week and last a few hours at a time. Most commonly, patients travel to an outpatient center to have dialysis, but home dialysis therapy is becoming an option for some. 

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How long do hemodialysis treatments last? The time needed for your dialysis depends on: how well your kidneys work how much fluid weight you gain between treatments how much waste you have in your body how big you are the type of artificial kidney used Usually, each hemodialysis treatment lasts about four hours and is done three times per week. A type of hemodialysis called high-flux dialysis may take less time. You can speak to your doctor to see if this is an appropriate treatment for you.

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Peritoneal dialysis Peritoneal dialysis uses the lining of the abdominal cavity as the dialysis filter to rid the body of waste and to balance electrolyte levels. A catheter is placed in the abdominal cavity through the abdominal wall by a surgeon and is expected to remain there for the long-term. The dialysis solution is then dripped in through the catheter and left in the abdominal cavity for a few hours and then is drained out. In that time, waste products leech from the blood normally flowing through the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum). There are benefits and complications for each type of dialysis. Not every patient can choose which type he or she would prefer. The treatment decision depends on the patient's illness and their past medical history along with other issues.

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Usually, the nephrologist (kidney specialist) will have a long discussion with the patient and family to decide what will be the best option available. Dialysis is life saving. Without it, patients whose kidneys no longer function would die relatively quickly due to electrolyte abnormalities and the buildup of toxins in the blood stream. Patients may live many years with dialysis but other underlying and associated illnesses often are the cause of death

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What is peritoneal dialysis and how does it work? In this type of dialysis, your blood is cleaned inside your body. The doctor will do surgery to place a plastic tube called a catheter into your abdomen (belly) to make an access. During the treatment, your abdominal area (called the peritoneal cavity) is slowly filled with dialysate through the catheter. The blood stays in the arteries and veins that line your peritoneal cavity. Extra fluid and waste products are drawn out of your blood and into the dialysate. There are two major kinds of peritoneal dialysis.

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When is dialysis needed? You need dialysis when you develop end stage kidney failure --usually by the time you lose about 85 to 90 percent of your kidney function and have a GFR of <15.   What does dialysis do? When your kidneys fail, dialysis keeps your body in balance by: removing waste, salt and extra water to prevent them from building up in the body keeping a safe level of certain chemicals in your blood, such as potassium, sodium and bicarbonate helping to control blood pressure

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How long has dialysis been available? Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis have been done since the mid 1940's. Dialysis, as a regular treatment, was begun in 1960 and is now a standard treatment all around the world. CAPD began in 1976. Thousands of patients have been helped by these treatments. How long can you live on dialysis? We do not yet know how long patients on dialysis will live. We think that some dialysis patients may live as long as people without kidney failure.

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Where is dialysis done? Dialysis can be done in a hospital, in a dialysis unit that is not part of a hospital, or at home. You and your doctor will decide which place is best, based on your medical condition and your wishes.

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Will dialysis help cure the kidney disease? No. Dialysis does some of the work of healthy kidneys, but it does not cure your kidney disease. You will need to have dialysis treatments for your whole life unless you are able to get a kidney transplant. Is dialysis uncomfortable? You may have some discomfort when the needles are put into your fistula or graft, but most patients have no other problems. The dialysis treatment itself is painless. However, some patients may have a drop in their blood pressure. If this happens, you may feel sick to your stomach, vomit, have a headache or cramps. With frequent treatments, those problems usually go away.

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Is dialysis expensive? Yes. Dialysis costs a lot of money. However, the federal government pays 80 percent of all dialysis costs for most patients. Private health insurance or state Medicaid programs also help with the costs. Do dialysis patients feel normal? Many patients live normal lives except for the time needed for treatments. Dialysis usually makes you feel better because it helps many of the problems caused by kidney failure. You and your family will need time to get used to dialysis.

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Do dialysis patients have to control their diets? Yes. You may be on a special diet. You may not be able to eat everything you like, and you may need to limit how much you drink. Your diet may vary according to the type of dialysis. Can dialysis Patients travel? Yes. Dialysis centers are located in every part of the United States and in many foreign countries. The treatment is standardized. You must make an appointment for dialysis treatments at another center before you go. The staff at your center may help you make the appointment. Can dialysis patients continue to work? Many dialysis patients can go back to work after they have gotten used to dialysis. If your job has a lot of physical labor (heavy lifting, digging, etc.), you may need to get a different job.

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In  hemodialysis , blood is filtered through a tube that's inserted in the vein. The tube is connected to a machine that cleans the blood of wastes and the "clean blood" is returned to the body through another tube. Hemodialysis is usually performed in a hospital in three 4-hour sessions a week . In  peritoneal  dialysis, the space between the abdominal wall and organs is filled with a cleansing solution that absorbs toxins from the abdominal lining. The solution is then drained out into a bag. This procedure is done at home one to four times a day, seven days a week or overnight using a cycling machine. For how many days we should take the treatment

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Kidney transplantation If kidney failure occurs and is non-reversible, kidney transplantation is an alternative option to dialysis. If the patient is an appropriate candidate, the health care practitioner will contact an organ transplant center to arrange evaluation to see if the patient is suitable for this treatment. If so, the search for a donor begins. Sometimes, family members have compatible tissue types and, if they are willing, may donate a kidney. Otherwise, the patient will be placed on the organ transplant list that is maintained by the United Network of Organ Sharing. Not all hospitals are capable of performing kidney transplants. The patient may have to travel to undergo their operation. The most successful programs are those that do many transplants every year.

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While kidney transplants have become more routine, they still carry some risk. The patient will need to take anti-rejection medications that reduce the ability of the immune system to fight infection. The body can try to reject the kidney or the transplanted kidney may fail to work. As with any operation, there is a risk of bleeding and infection. Kidney transplants may provide better quality of life than dialysis. After one year, 95% of transplanted kidneys are still functioning and after five years the number is 80%. It seems that the longer a patient is on dialysis, the shorter the life of the transplanted kidney. If the transplanted kidney fails, the alternative is another kidney transplant or a return to dialysis.

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Made by: G .Mothy 1Oth C

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