PPT ON WATER RESOURCES BY G.MOTHY K.V.NO.1 UPPAL HYD

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IT IS PPT ON WATER RESOURCES

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Social science project:

Social science project Water resources

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CONTENT COMPOSITION OF WATER DISTRIBUTION OF WATER WATER SCARCITY THE NEED FOR WATER CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT MULTIPURPOSE RIVER PROJECT INTEGRETED WATER RESOURES MANAGEMENT DIFFERENT TYPES OF DAMS NAMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN RAIN WATER HARVESTING

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WATER’S IMPORTANCE, AVAILABILITY, AND RENEWAL Water keeps us alive, moderates climate, sculpts the land, removes and dilutes wastes and pollutants, and moves continually through the hydrologic cycle. Only about 0.02% of the earth’s water supply is available to us as liquid freshwater.

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WATER’S IMPORTANCE, AVAILABILITY, AND RENEWAL Comparison of population sizes and shares of the world’s freshwater among the continents.

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WATER’S IMPORTANCE, AVAILABILITY, AND RENEWAL Some precipitation infiltrates the ground and is stored in soil and rock (groundwater). Water that does not sink into the ground or evaporate into the air runs off (surface runoff) into bodies of water. The land from which the surface water drains into a body of water is called its watershed or drainage basin .

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Global Water RESOURCES

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THE BLUE PLANET From outer space, the Earth looks BLUE in colour. That’s because approximately 70% of the Earth is covered with water

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Q. Do we have less water today than a million years ago? Then

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Now A. The same amount of water

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The water cycle Transpiration

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Is there a water problem? Approximately 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered with water. The absolute quantity of water has not changed over the years. Then why are we talking of a water crisis? Why do we need to conserve water?

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Fig. 14-3, p. 308 Unconfined Aquifer Recharge Area Precipitation Evaporation and transpiration Evaporation Confined Recharge Area Runoff Flowing artesian well Recharge Unconfined Aquifer Stream Well requiring a pump Infiltration Water table Lake Infiltration Unconfined aquifer Confined aquifer Confining impermeable rock layer Less permeable material such as clay

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Distribution of Water (From “ Resources of the Earth ” 1972 data) Type Location Volume (l) Percent Surface Lakes 1.25 x 10 17 0.009 Saline lakes/seas 1.04 x 10 17 0.008 Streams 1.00 x 10 15 0.0001 Subsurface Vadose 6.7 x 10 16 0.005 Groundwater (to 750 m) 4.17x 10 18 0.31 Groundwater (below 750m) 4.17x 10 18 0.31 Other Reservoirs Icecaps, glaciers 2.9 x 10 19 2.15 Atmosphere 1.3 x 10 16 0.001 Oceans 1.32 x 10 21 97.2

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Distribution of Water (1997 data) Source Volume (km 3 ) % Fresh % Total Oceans 1338 x 10 6 96.5 Ice caps/glaciers 24 x 10 6 68.7 1.74 Groundwater 23.4 x 10 6 Fresh 10.53 x 10 6 30.1 0.76 Saline 12.87 x 10 6 0.94 Soil Moisture .0165 x 10 6 0.05 0.001 Permafrost 0.3 x 10 6 0.86 0.022 Lakes 0.1764 x 10 6 0.013 Fresh 0.091 x 10 6 0.26 0.007 Saline 0.0854 x 10 6 0.006 Atmosphere 0.0129 x 10 6 0.04 0.001 Swamp Water 0.0115 x 10 6 0.03 0.0008 Rivers 0.00212 x 10 6 0.006 0.0002 Biological Water 0.00112 x 10 6 0.003 0.0001

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DISTRIBUTION OF GLOBAL WATER

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If all the world’s water could fit into a bucket Water available for drinking would be less than a teaspoon Sustainable freshwater supply for human use = 0.01% Salt Water = 97.5%

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Mismatch between regions of large population and available freshwater resources Fresh Water Stress By 2025 2 / 3 of the world’s population estimated to be underwater-stress conditions. 3 billion people may be affected by water scarcity . Source: http://www.unep.org/dewa/assessments/ecosystems/water/vitalwater/21.htm#21b

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The total amount of water in the world is the same, but there are more people wanting to use this water 1940 World population doubled ( increased by 3 bn ) Freshwater use increased more than 4 times 1995 Population and water Resources There is just not enough water!!!! 2050 Estimated population increase = 2.7 bn

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Every item that we use needs water for production CAUSES FOR WATER STRESS Water evaporation from reservoirs of large hydro power projects Domestic Extensive farming. High usage of water Industry Increase in Population Water stress!!!! Power Agriculture People require food to eat Increased demand for goods bathing, flushing, washing, cooking, drinking…

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Global water use by Sector Evolution Of Global Water Use Withdrawal And Consumption By Sector Source: http://www.unep.org/dewa/assessments/ecosystems/water/vitalwater/15.htm , accessed November 2008

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India, with more than a billion people, needs a lot of water to grow food for its population Agriculture

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Run off from agricultural fields Untreated municipal sewage Air pollutants Dissolve in rainwater It’s not just increased consumption… For more details refer to the presentation on ‘Water pollution’. Increasing pollution of freshwater sources ( surface and groundwater ) Untreated industrial wastes

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Lakes, tanks and ponds being destroyed. Land filled for construction purposes. Unsustainable extraction of groundwater in urban areas, affecting groundwater quality. Receive sewage that cannot be handled by sewage treatment plants. Disposal of solid and liquid wastes above or into groundwater aquifers. Additional stress in urban areas

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SO… Is there a Water Problem? Yes , there definitely is. There is a greater demand for freshwater Freshwater resources are being polluted and are therefore unfit for consumption Skewed distribution of population and freshwater resources leads to unequal access

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India – status and projections 1 / 6 of World’s Population 1 / 25 of world’s Freshwater Resources

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WITHDRAWING GROUNDWATER TO INCREASE SUPPLIES Most aquifers are renewable resources unless water is removed faster than it is replenished or if they are contaminated. Groundwater depletion is a growing problem mostly from irrigation. At least one-fourth of the farms in India are being irrigated from over pumped aquifers.

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Trade-Offs Withdrawing Groundwater Advantages Disadvantages Useful for drinking and irrigation Aquifer depletion from overpumping Available year-round Sinking of land (subsidence) from overpumping Exists almost everywhere Polluted aquifers for decades or centuries Renewable if not overpumped or contaminated Saltwater intrusion into drinking water supplies near coastal areas Reduced water flows into surface waters No evaporation losses Cheaper to extract than most surface waters Increased cost and contamination from deeper wells

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Fig. 14-12, p. 316 Solutions Groundwater Depletion Prevention Control Waste less water Raise price of water to discourage waste Subsidize water conservation Ban new wells in aquifers near surface waters Tax water pumped from wells near surface waters Buy and retire groundwater withdrawal rights in critical areas Do not grow water-intensive crops in dry areas Set and enforce minimum stream flow levels

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Water scarcity

Water stress and Water scarcity:

Water stress and Water scarcity occur when the demand for water exceeds the available amount during a certain period or when poor quality restricts its use.

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The UN states by 2025, 1.8 billion people will be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity, Two-thirds of the world population could be under stress conditions

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"water stress" is when annual water supplies drop below 1,700 cubic meters per person per year, according to the Falkenmark Water Stress Indicator

PHYSICAL SCARCITY:

PHYSICAL SCARCITY Physical access to water is limited. It is when the demand outstrips the lands ability to provide the needed water. For the most part, dry parts of the world or arid regions are most often associated with physical scarcity.

ECONOMIC SCARCITY:

ECONOMIC SCARCITY When a population does not have the necessary monetary means to utilize an adequate source of water. It is about a unequal distribution of resources for many reasons, including political and ethnic conflict.

SUPPLY ISSUES:

SUPPLY ISSUES

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Inaccessible or Out of Reach

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No infrastructure

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Rain

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Evapo-transpiration

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Fossilized Aquifers

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Pollution

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DEMAND FOR WATER

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POPULATION INCREASE

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Agriculture

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Distress signals of scarcity A new field of activity of tapping groundwater by means of borewells has been allowed to grow unchecked. Highly fractured rocks at depth do hold considerable quantity of water under pressure. Powerful pumps are able to suck this water .

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In India water is more valuable than gold water is not a major problem for some countries of the world .People pay for clean non polluted water

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THE NEED FOR CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT It is a resource that is a benefit to everyone. To save money. Lower consumption means lower water bills. To keep rates low. Maximizing current water supplies helps defer the need to develop new, more expensive sources of water. To prepare for a drought. Many areas of the country have experienced drought conditions in the past few years. Water conservation helps prepare for these worst of times. To comply with regulations. Many states and local regulators have established efficient water use regulations.

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Water Conservation Tips, to save water and money: Toilet flushing accounts for 40% of the water usage each day. Showers and baths account for 35% of the water usage each day. Laundry and dishwashing account for 20% of the water usage each day. Drinking and cooking account for the additional 5% of the water usage per day.

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CONSERVATION OF WATER RESOURCES The uneven distribution of rainfall has often threatened human welfare, livelihood and economic development. The growing scarcity of water is due to the rapid growth of population, rising demand for food and cash crops, increasing urbanisation and rising standard of living. All these have increased the acuteness of the problem of water scarcity in future. For efficient water conservation and management, the following points are to be kept in mind: To aware people about the necessity of water and its conservation. To involve people in all the activities of water management. To make people aware that treated water should not be used in gardening, washing toilets and wash basins and so on. Drying up of underground aquifers should be prevented. Water-bodies should be kept pollution-free. Different measures for specific area should be adopted for efficient water management, and active cooperation of the local people should also be sought in every measure.

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HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES A hydraulic structure is a structure submerged or partially submerged in any body of water, which disrupts the natural flow of water. They can be used to divert, disrupt or completely stop the flow. An example of a hydraulic structure would be a dam, which slows the normal flow rate of the river in order to power turbines. It can be built in rivers, a sea, or any body of water where there is a need for a change in the natural flow of water. It may also be used to measure the flow of water. When used to measure the flow of water, hydraulic structures are defined as a class of specially shaped, static devices over or through which water is directed in such a way that under free-flow conditions at a specified location (point of measurement) a known level to flow relationship exists. Hydraulic structures of this type can generally be divided into two categories: flumes and weirs.

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HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES IN ANCIENT INDIA 1) In the first century B.C., Sringaverapura near Allahabad had sophisticated water harvesting system channelling the flood water of the river Ganga . 2) During the time of Chandragupta Maurya , dams, lakes and irrigation systems were extensively built. 3) Evidences of sophisticated irrigation works have also been found in Kalinga , (Orissa), Nagarjunakonda (Andhra Pradesh), Bennur (Karnataka), Kolhapur (Maharashtra), etc. 4) In the 11th Century, Bhopal Lake, one of the largest artificial lakes of its time was built. 5) In the 14th Century, the tank in Hauz Khas, Delhi was constructed by Iltutmish for supplying water to Siri Fort area.

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Bhopal lake Tank of Hauj Khas

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Hirakud Dam

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MULTI-PURPOSE RIVER PROJECTS Large dams and reservoirs can produce cheap electricity, reduce downstream flooding, and provide year-round water for irrigating cropland, but they also displace people and disrupt aquatic systems.

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Fig. 14-13a, p. 317 Provides water for year-round irrigation of cropland Flooded land destroys forests or cropland and displaces people Large losses of water through evaporation Provides water for drinking Downstream cropland and estuaries are deprived of nutrient-rich silt Reservoir is useful for recreation and fishing Risk of failure and devastating downstream flooding Can produce cheap electricity (hydropower) Downstream flooding is reduced Migration and spawning of some fish are disrupted

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Dams Dam is a solid barrier constructed at a suitable location across a river valley to store flowing water.

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IMPORTANCE OF DAMS Water is the vital resource to support all forms of life.  Some areas of the country are more arid and water is a scarce and precious commodity.  Throughout history, dams and reservoirs have been constructed to collect, store and manage the supply of water to sustain civilization. The primary benefit of dams and reservoirs is water supply.  Reservoirs also provide benefits such as flood control, recreation, scenic beauty, fish and wildlife habitat and, at some dams, hydro-electric power.  Currently there are about 45,000 dams higher than 50 feet throughout the world.  While some are more than 2,000 years old, over 70% have been built in the last 50 years.

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TYPES OF DAMS Gravity Dams: These dams are heavy and massive wall-like structures of concrete in which the whole weight acts vertically downwards As the entire load is transmitted on the small area of foundation, such dams are constructed where rocks are competent and stable.

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Bhakra Dam is the highest Concrete Gravity dam in Asia and Second Highest in the world. Bhakra Dam is across river Sutlej in Himachal Pradesh The construction of this project was started in the year 1948 and was completed in 1963 . It is 740 ft. high above the deepest foundation as straight concrete dam being more than three times the height of Qutab Minar. Length at top 518.16 m (1700 feet); Width at base 190.5 m (625 feet), and at the top is 9.14 m (30 feet) Bhakra Dam is the highest Concrete Gravity dam in Asia and Second Highest in the world.

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DAMS IN INDIA

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Buttress Dam: Buttress Dam – Is a gravity dam reinforced by structural supports Buttress - a support that transmits a force from a roof or wall to another supporting structure This type of structure can be considered even if the foundation rocks are little weaker

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These type of dams are concrete or masonry dams which are curved or convex upstream in plan This shape helps to transmit the major part of the water load to the abutments Arch dams are built across narrow, deep river gorges, but now in recent years they have been considered even for little wider valleys. Arch Dams:

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Earth Dams: They are trapezoidal in shape Earth dams are constructed where the foundation or the underlying material or rocks are weak to support the masonry dam or where the suitable competent rocks are at greater depth. Earthen dams are relatively smaller in height and broad at the base They are mainly built with clay, sand and gravel, hence they are also known as Earth fill dam or Rock fill dam

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Watershed Development L imited water resources,- more demand. Watershed is the basic scientific unit. Need for proper planning and management. Integrated watershed development approach Digital revolution Recent advances in watershed modelling - use of computer models, remote sensing and GIS.

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Narmada Struggle – Fact Sheet 30 Big Dams, 135 Medium Dams, 3000 Small Dams Height of Sardar Sarovar Dam – 455 feet Benefits – Irrigation, Electricity Beneficiaries – Industries and rich farmers Displacement – 400000 tribals and marginal farmers Submergence Area - 36,000 ha Current Height - 340 feet Status of Rehabilitation – 50000 families in need of rehabilitation

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Narmada Bachao Andolan IT is the voice of hundreds of thousands of indigenous people and peasants who are losing their land and livelihoods to large dams on the Narmada River.  The nonviolent satyagraha (insistence on truth) of the displaced people for their rehabilitation has spanned two decades, challenging the centralized development programs and envisioning alternatives. The movement has won policy changes in World Bank and other multi-lateral funding agencies. The demands of NBA include land-for-land rehabilitation of the displaced people and equitable distribution of natural resources and benefits of such projects.

RAIN WATER HARVESTING:

RAIN WATER HARVESTING

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Every year, the water level in the state PUNJAB goes down by one metre. If this continues, the state will soon turn into a desert. So it is necessary to save every drop of water. “Every commercial building as well as big houses in the state must install Rain water harvesting system to save water,” he appealed .

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Traditional rainwater harvesting systems Widely prevalent in all parts of India Mountainous rain-shadow regions like Spiti valley Flood plains to check floods during monsoons The Deccan plateau which has only monsoon fed (no perennial) rivers

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Traditional rainwater harvesting systems Widely prevalent in all parts of India Desert and arid region , Rajasthan, Rann of Kutch etc. Mountainous regions with heavy rainfall to check erosion and to provide water in non-rainy months since water distribution systems are not easy to install

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Harvesting System Broadly rainwater can be harvested for two purposes Storing rainwater for ready use in containers above or below ground  Charged into the soil for withdrawal later (groundwater recharging)                                                                                                                                                                                             Source: A Water Harvesting Manual For Urban Areas

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RAIN WATER HARVESTING TECHNIQUES : There are two main techniques of rain water harvestings. Storage of rainwater on surface for future use. Recharge to ground water. The storage of rain water on surface is a traditional techniques and structures used were underground tanks, ponds, check dams, weirs etc

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Recharge to ground water is a new concept of rain water harvesting and the structures generally used are :- Pits  :- Recharge pits are constructed for recharging the shallow aquifer. These are constructed 1 to 2 m, wide and to 3 m. deep which are back filled with boulders, gravels, coarse sand.

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Trenches :- These are constructed when the permeable stram is available at shallow depth. Trench may be 0.5 to 1 m. wide, 1 to 1.5m. deep and 10 to 20 m. long depending up availability of water. These are back filled with filter materials. Dug wells :- Existing dug wells may be utilised as recharge structure and water should pass through filter media before putting into dug well.

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Hand pumps  :- The existing hand pumps may be used for recharging the shallow/deep aquifers, if the availability of water is limited. Water should pass through filter media before diverting it into hand pumps. Recharge wells   :- Recharge wells of 100 to 300 mm. diameter are generally constructed for recharging the deeper aquifers and water is passed through filter media to avoid choking of recharge wells.

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Recharge Shafts   :- For recharging the shallow aquifer which are located below clayey surface, recharge shafts of 0.5 to 3 m. diameter and 10 to 15 m. deep are constructed and back filled with boulders, gravels & coarse sand. Lateral shafts with bore wells   :- For recharging the upper as well as deeper aquifers lateral shafts of 1.5 to 2 m. wide & 10 to 30 m. long depending upon availability of water with one or two bore wells are constructed. The lateral shafts is back filled with boulders, gravels & coarse sand.

Spreading techniques :- When permeable strata starts from top then this technique is used. Spread the water in streams/Nalas by making check dams, nala bunds, cement plugs, gabion structures or a percolation pond may be constructed.:

Spreading techniques  :- When permeable strata starts from top then this technique is used. Spread the water in streams/Nalas by making check dams, nala bunds, cement plugs, gabion structures or a percolation pond may be constructed.

Reasons of Shortage of Water:

1 Reasons of Shortage of Water Population increase Industrialization Urbanization (a) Increase in per capita utilization (b) Less peculation area In places where rain fed/ irrigation based crops are cultivated through ground water Decrease in surface area of Lakes, talab, tanks etc.

Reasons of Shortage of Water:

2 98 Reasons of Shortage of Water Deforestation (i) Less precipitation (ii) Absence of Barriers (a) Rain drops checked by leaves of tree (b) Water slowly descends through twigs & trunk © Humus – acts as reservoir (d) Tiny creatures – helps percolation 1 hectare of forest-6-7 Lac ton of water (after filtering) top layer can hold 1.2 Lac tons of water

What is the solution ?:

3 What is the solution ? Rain water is the ultimate source of fresh water Potential of rain to meet water demand is tremendous Rain water harvesting helps to overcome water scarcity To conserve ground water the aquifers must be recharged with rain water Rain water harvesting is the ultimate answer

Why Rain water be harvested:

4 Why Rain water be harvested To conserve & augment the storage of ground water To reduce water table depletion To improve the quality of ground water To arrest sea water intrusion in coastal areas To avoid flood & water stagnation in urban areas

What is rain water harvesting ?:

5 What is rain water harvesting ? It is the activity of direct collection of rain water Rain water can be stored for direct use or can be recharged into the ground water aquifer

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Rain Water Harvesting?. Rain Water Harvesting RWH- process of collecting, conveying & storing water from rainfall in an area – for beneficial use. Storage – in tanks, reservoirs, underground storage- groundwater Hydrological Cycle

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Rain Water Harvesting?. RWH - yield copious amounts of water. For an average rainfall of 1,000mm, approximately four million litres of rainwater can be collected in a year in an acre of land (4,047 m 2 ), post-evaporation. A s RWH - neither energy-intensive nor labour-intensive It can be a cost-effective alternative to other water-accruing methods. With the water table falling rapidly, & concrete surfaces and landfill dumps taking the place of water bodies, RWH is the most reliable solution for augmenting groundwater level to attain self-sufficiency

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Roof Rain Water Harvesting Land based Rain Water Harvesting Watershed based Rain Water harvesting For Urban & Industrial Environment – Roof & Land based RWH Public, Private, Office & Industrial buildings Pavements, Lawns, Gardens & other open spaces RWH – Methodologies

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Rain Water Harvesting– Advantages 1.Provides self-sufficiency to water supply 2.Reduces the cost for pumping of ground water 3.Provides high quality water, soft and low in minerals 4.Improves the quality of ground water through dilution when recharged 5.Reduces soil erosion & flooding in urban areas 6.The rooftop rain water harvesting is less expensive & easy to construct, operate and maintain 7. In desert, RWH only relief 8. I n saline or coastal areas & Islands, rain water provides good quality water

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Appropriate Technology Water conservation and groundwater recharge techniques Water harvesting cum supplementary irrigation techniques

The roof catchment are selectively cleaner when compared to the ground level catchment:

16 The roof catchment are selectively cleaner when compared to the ground level catchment Losses from roof catchment are minimum Built & Maintained by local communities No Chemical contamination & only required filtration Available at door step with least cost

Rain water harvesting system The typical roof top rain water harvesting system comprises :

17 Rain water harvesting system The typical roof top rain water harvesting system comprises Roof catchment Gutters Down pipe & first flushing pipe Filter Unit Storage Tank

Roof catchment:

18 Roof catchment The roof of the house is used as the catchment for collecting rain water. The style construction and material of the roof effect its suitability as a catchment, Roofs made of corrugated iron sheet , asbestos sheet, Tiles or Concrete can be utilized for harvesting the rain water

Gutters:

19 Gutters Gutters are channels fixed to the edges of roof all around to collect & transport the rainwater from the roof. Gutters can be made in semi-circular and rectangular shape with cement pipe, plain galvanized iron sheet, PVC pipes, bamboos etc. Use of locally available material reduce the overall cost of the system.

Down Pipe:

20 Down Pipe It is the pipe which carries the rainwater from the gutters to the filter & storage tank. Down pipe is joined with the gutters at one end & the other end is connected to the filter unit of the storage tank. PVC or GI pipe of 50mm to 75mm (2 to”) are commonly used for down pipe. Bamboo can be also used wherever available and possible

First Flush Pipe:

21 First Flush Pipe Debris, dust & dirt collect on the roof during non rainy periods when the first rain arrive. A first flush system arrangement is made to avoid the entering unwanted material into the Filter media & storage tank. This is a simple manually operated arrangement or semi-automatic system with a valve below the ‘T’ junction

Filter Unit:

22 Filter Unit The filter unit is a container or chamber filled with filter media such as coarse sand, charcoal, coconut fiber, pebbles & gravels to remove the debris & dirt from water that enters the tank. The filter unit is placed over the storage tank or separately. It may be of Ferro cement filter unit, Aluminum, Cement rings or Plastic bucket etc.

Storage Tank:

23 Storage Tank It is used to store the water that is collected from the roof through filter. For small scale water storage plastic buckets, jerry cans, clay or cement jars, ceramic jars, drums may be used. For larger quantities of water, the system will require a bigger tank with cylindrical or rectangular or square in shape constructed with Ferro cement or cement rings or plain cement concrete or reinforced cement concrete or brick or stone etc. The storage tank is provided with a cover on the top to avoid the contamination of water from external sources . The storage tank is provided with pipe fixtures at appropriate places to draw the water to clean the tank & to dispose of extra water. A provision for keeping the vessel to collect the water is to be made.

Size of Storage Tank:

24 Size of Storage Tank Based on No. of person in the House hold Per capita water requirement No. of days for which water is required

Water available from Roof:

25 Water available from Roof Annual rainfall (in mm) x roof area (in sq. m) x co-efficient of run off for roof co-efficient of run off GI sheet 0.9 Asbestos 0.8 Tiled 0.75 Plaster on bricks/ Concrete 0.7

How the problem can be minimized:

36 How the problem can be minimized By providing pipe water system with source (electric based) (a) Surface water (b) Deep tube wells Recharging stratas through rainwater harvesting methods (No. of villages of lower range concentration can be decreased) Storing rain water for drinking purpose (a) In areas where electricity problem is more (b) In areas where concentration is more © In areas where PWS is uneconomical (d) In areas where dependable source is not available

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ATTRIBUTES OF GROUNDWATER : There is more ground water than surface water Ground water is less expensive and economic resource. Ground water is sustainable and reliable source of water supply. Ground water is relatively less vulnerable to pollution Ground water is usually of high bacteriological purity. Ground water is free of pathogenic organisms.

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Ground water needs little treatment before use. Ground water has no turbidity and colour. Ground water has distinct health advantage as art alternative for lower sanitary quality surface water. Ground water is usually universally available. Ground water resource can be instantly developed and used. There is no conveyance losses in ground water based supplies. Ground water has low vulnerability to drought. Ground water is key to life in arid and semi-arid regions. Ground water is source of dry weather flow in rivers and streams.

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Tankas of Bikaner, Barmer, Phalodi - Rajasthan Note the slope provided for the rainwater (palar pani) to flow into the tanka Pipes from the rooftop lead rainwater into the tanka catchment

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Tankas for storing drinking water Thar desert region of Rajasthan (Barmer, Bikaner, Pallodi) Unique underground structures of various shapes and sizes to collect rain water for drinking purposes Sometimes used to store drinking water brought from far off wells in case the rainwater gets exhausted Constructed in court yards or in front of houses and temples, Built both for individual households as well as for village communities

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Main source of drinking water in these areas People protect and maintain them Just before the on-set of the monsoon, the catchment area of the Tanka is cleaned up to remove all possible pollutants Human activity and grazing of cattle in the area is prohibited First spell of rain not collected Tankas of Bikaner, Barmer, Phalodi - Rajasthan

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Tankas of Bikaner, Barmer, Phalodi - Rajasthan Provide enough drinking water to tide over the water scarcity during the summer months even though average annual rainfall is as less as 200 mm to 300 mm. In many cases the stored water lasts for the whole year. These simple traditional water harvesting structures are useful even during years of below-normal rainfall.

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Rainwater harvesting in Rajasthan today Rajasthan Canal (Indira Gandhi Nahar Project) brings water (for agriculture and domestic use) from the Sutlej and Beas rivers Rainwater harvesting was on decline Being revived in many parts of Rajasthan: traditional methods with some improvisations

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Bamboo drip irrigation in Meghalaya

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Bamboo drip irrigation in Meghalaya 200-year-old system Used by tribal farmers of Khasi and Jaintia hills Bamboos divert water from perennial springs on hilltops to the lower reaches by gravity Used to irrigate the betel leaf or black pepper crops 18-20 litres of water entering the bamboo pipe system per minute gets transported over several hundred meters and finally gets reduced to 20-80 drops per minute at the site of the plant. Attempts made to introduce modern pipe systems but farmers prefer to use their indigenous form of irrigation.

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Made by: G. Mothy D.EPHRIAM SAGAR.K M.LALITHA

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