Analog and Digital Signals

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Analog and Digital Signals


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Analog & Digital Signals: 

Analog & Digital Signals

Analog & Digital Signals: 

Analog & Digital Signals 2 This presentation will Review the definitions of analog and digital signals. Detail the components of an analog signal. Define logic levels. Detail the components of a digital signal. Review the function of the virtual oscilloscope.

Analog and Digital Signals: 

Analog and Digital Signals Analog Signals Continuous Infinite range of values More exact values, but more difficult to work with Digital Signals Discrete Finite range of values (2) Not as exact as analog, but easier to work with 3 Example: A digital thermostat in a room displays a temperature of 72 . An analog thermometer measures the room temperature at 72.482. The analog value is continuous and more accurate, but the digital value is more than adequate for the application and significantly easier to process electronically.

Example of Analog Signals: 

Example of Analog Signals An analog signal can be any time-varying signal. Minimum and maximum values can be either positive or negative. They can be periodic (repeating) or non-periodic. Sine waves and square waves are two common analog signals. Note that this square wave is not a digital signal because its minimum value is negative. 4 0 volts Sine Wave Square Wave (not digital) Random-Periodic

Parts of an Analog Signal: 

Parts of an Analog Signal 5 Amplitude (peak-to-peak) Amplitude (peak) Period (T) Frequency:

Logic Levels: 

Logic Levels Before examining digital signals, we must define logic levels. A logic level is a voltage level that represents a defined digital state. Logic HIGH: The higher of two voltages, typically 5 volts Logic LOW: The lower of two voltages, typically 0 volts 6 5.0 v 2.0 v 0.8 v 0.0 v Logic Low Logic High Invalid Logic Level Logic Level Voltage True/False On/Off 0/1 HIGH 5 volts True On 1 LOW 0 volts False Off 0

Example of Digital Signals: 

Example of Digital Signals Digital signal are commonly referred to as square waves or clock signals. Their minimum value must be 0 volts, and their maximum value must be 5 volts. They can be periodic (repeating) or non-periodic. The time the signal is high (t H ) can vary anywhere from 1% of the period to 99% of the period. 7 0 volts 5 volts

Parts of a Digital Signal: 

Parts of a Digital Signal 8 Amplitude Time High (t H ) Time Low (t L ) Period (T) Rising Edge Falling Edge Amplitude: For digital signals, this will ALWAYS be 5 volts. Period: The time it takes for a periodic signal to repeat. (seconds) Frequency: A measure of the number of occurrences of the signal per second. (Hertz, Hz) Time High (t H ): The time the signal is at 5 v. Time Low (t L ): The time the signal is at 0 v. Duty Cycle: The ratio of t H to the total period (T). Rising Edge: A 0-to-1 transition of the signal. Falling Edge: A 1-to-0 transition of the signal. Frequency:


Oscilloscope The Oscilloscope is a piece of electronic test equipment that is used to capture and measure time-varying signals, both analog and digital. Oscilloscopes can be found on the workbench (physical) as well as part of a simulation tool (virtual). We will limit our usage to the virtual oscilloscope. 9

Virtual Oscilloscope: Multisim: 

Virtual Oscilloscope: Multisim 10 Oscilloscope Component Oscilloscope Instrumentation Timebase: Adjusts the time scale and offset of the signals. This is common for all channels. Channel_X: Adjusts the horizontal scale and offset of the selected channel. Channel Selection Marker Display: Displays the voltage & time intersect for the markers T1 & T2. Markers: Movable markers T1 & T2 Displayed Signals

Example: Digital Signal: 

Example: Digital Signal Example : Determine the following information for the digital signal shown: Amplitude Period (T) Frequency (f) Time High ( t H ) Time Low ( t L ) Duty Cycle (DC) 11

Example: Digital Signal: 

Example: Digital Signal Solution : Amplitude: Period (T): Frequency (f): 12 2 ms / div 2 v / div

Example: Digital Signal: 

Example: Digital Signal Solution : Time High (t H ): Time Low (t L ): Duty Cycle (DC): 13 2 ms / div 2 v / div

Period Measurement with Markers: 

Period Measurement with Markers The markers can be used to measure the period t H & t L (next slide). 14 Period (T):

tH & tL Measurement with Markers: 

t H & t L Measurement with Markers 15 Time High ( t H ): Low High ( t L ):