Democracy in the contemporary world

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its all about democracy in various countries.

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Democracy in the contemporary world

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Part - I Topics to be discussed :- Development of democracy Salvador Allende Democracy in Chile. Pinochet’s Rule. Restoration of democracy. Story Of Michelle Bachelet. Democracy in Poland. Jaruzelski. The two features of democracy Changing maps of democracy

Development Of Democracy:

Development Of Democracy More than half of the independent countries in the world today are democratic. The expansion of democracy has not been smooth and straight. It has seen several ups and downs in different countries. It still remains an unstable and uncertain achievement.

Salvador Allende :

Salvador Allende He was the president of Chile, a country in South America. He was a leader elected by the people. Allende was the founder leader of the Socialist Party of Chile and led the Popular Unity coalition to victory in the presidential election in 1970. After being elected the president, Allende had taken several policy decisions to help the poor and the workers. These included reform of the educational system, free milk for children and redistribution of lands to the landless farmers. He was opposed to foreign companies taking away natural resources like copper from the country. The landlords, the rich and the church opposed his policies. Some other political parties in Chile also opposed his government.

Map Of Chile:

Map Of Chile

Death of Allende:

Death of Allende On the morning of 11 th September 1973, the military took over the seaport, The Defense minister was arrested by the military when he arrived at his office. The military commanders asked the President to resign. Allende refused to resign or leave the country. But realizing the danger to the country and to his life, he addressed the people on the radio. Then the military surrounded the president’s house and started bombing it.

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President Allende died in the military attack . This was the sacrifice he was talking about in his last speech. A government and people elected was overthrown by the military through conspiracy and violence. What took place in this story is a military coup. General Augusto Pinochet army general, led the coup. The government of U.S.A was unhappy with the rule of Allende and have known to support the coup destroying Allende .

A government and people elected was overthrown by the military thorough conspiracy and violence.:

A government and people elected was overthrown by the military thorough conspiracy and violence.

Pinochet's Rule:

Pinochet's Rule Pinochet became the President of the country and ruled for the next 17 years. From a government that was elected by the people, the power shifted to the military officers. They could do as they wished and no one could question them. Thus a military dictatorship was established in Chile. Pinochet’s government was tortured and killed several of those who supported Allende and those who wanted democracy to be restored.

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These included General Alberto Bachelet of Chilean Air Force and many other officers who refused to join the coup. General Bachelet’s wife and daughter were put in prison and tortured. More than 3,000 people were killed by the military. Many more were reported ‘missing’. No one knows what happen with them.

Restoration Of Democracy:

Restoration Of Democracy Pinochet’s military dictator ship came to an end after he decided to hold a referendum 1988. He felt confident that in this referendum, the people would say ‘yes’ to his continuing in power. But the people of Chile has not forgotten their democratic traditions. Their vote was decisive ‘no’ to Pinochet. This led to Pinochet losing first his political and then his military powers.

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The hope Allende expressed in his last address was realized: felony, cowardice and treason were finally punished. Political freedom was restored. Since then Chile had held 4 presidential elections in which different political parties have participated. The elected governments that came to power ordered inquires into Pinochet’s rule. These inquires showed that his government was not only very brutal, but also very corrupt .

Story Of Michelle Bachelet:

Story Of Michelle Bachelet Michelle Bachelet daughter of general Bachelet who was imprisoned and tortured along with her mother was elected president of Chile in January 2006. A medical doctor and a moderate socialist , Michelle became the first women to be a defence minister in Latin America. In the presidential elections none Chile’s richest men.

Democracy in Poland:

Democracy in Poland This event in Poland happened in 1980. At that time Poland was ruled by Polish United Worker’s Party. This was one of many communist parties that ruled in several countries of east Europe at that time. In these countries no other political party was allowed to function. The people could not freely choose the leaders of the communist party or the government.

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Those who spoke against the leader’s, party or government they were put in prison. The government in Poland was supported and controlled by the government of (USSR), a vast and powerful communist state. On 14 August 1980, the workers of Lenin Shipyard in the city o Gdansk went on a strike. The shipyard as owned by the government. The strike began with a demand to take back a crane operator, a woman worker, who was unjustly dismissed from service. This strike was illegal, because trade unions independent of the ruling party were not allowed in Poland.

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As the strike continued a former electrician of the shipyard, Lech Walesa, joined the strikers. He was dismissed from service in 1976 for demanding higher pay. Walesa soon emerged as the leader of striking workers. The strike began to spread across the whole city. Now the worker started raising larger demands. They wanted the right to form independent trade unions. They also demanded the release of political prisoners and end to censorship on press.

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The movement became so popular that the government had to give in. The workers led by Walesa signed a 21-point agreement with the government that ended their strike. The government agreed to recognize the worker’s right to form independent trade unions and their right to strike. After the Gdansk agreement was signed, a new trade union called Solidarity (Solidarnosc in polish) was formed. It was the first time an independent trade union was formed in any of the communist states. Within a year, Solidarity swept across Poland and had about one crore members.

Jaruzelski:

Jaruzelski Revelations of widespread and mismanagement in the government made matters worse for the rulers. The government led by General Jaruzelski grew anxious and imposed martial law in December 1981. Thousands of Solidarity members were put in prison. Freedom to organize, protest and express opinions was once again taken away. Another wave of strike, again organized by solidarity, began in 1988. This time the Polish government was weaker, the support from Soviet Union uncertain and economy was in decline.

The Two Features of Democracy:

The Two Features of Democracy

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T he government of Poland claimed that it was ruling on behalf of working classes. Pinochet made no such claim and openly favoured big capitalists. Yet both had some common features. The people could not choose or change their rulers. There was no real freedom to express one’s opinions, form political associations and organize protests and political action. The three democratic governments identified above – Allende’s Chile, Walesa’s Poland and Bachelet’s Chile - are different in their approach towards social and economic matters. These people also have some common features. Only leaders elected by people should rule the country. People have the freedom to express to organize and freedom to protest.

The Changing Maps Of Democracy:

The Changing Maps Of Democracy

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DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT IN 1900 AND 1950 DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENTS IN 1950 BUT NOT IN 1900

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Democratic governments in 1975 Democratic government in 2000

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Topics to be discussed :- Phases in the expansion of democracy Universal Adult Franchise End of Colonialism United nations organisation.(UNO) World bank. Democracy Promotion War between America and Iraq Part - II

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Phases in the expansion of democracy The story of modern democracy began at least two centuries ago. French revolution of 1789. This popular uprising did not established a secure & stable democracy in France, throughout the 19th century. French revolution inspired many struggles for democracy all over Europe. In Britain , the progress towards democracy started much before the French revolution . But the progress was very slow. Through the 18 th & 19 th centuries, series of political events reduced the power of monarchy & feudal lords.

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British colonies in north America declared themselves independent in 1776. The right to vote was increased in the countries In the next few years these colonies came together to form the United States of America. America adopted a democratic constitution in 1787. But here too the right to vote was limited to very few men. Major demand of people was the right for every adult citizen to vote. In some countries only people owning property had the right to vote. Which was not correct. Often women did not have a chance to vote.

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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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UNIVERSAL ADULT FRANCHISE In United states of America , the blacks all over the country could not exercise the right to vote until 1965 Those struggling for democracy wanted this right granted universally to all adults-men or women, rich or poor, black or white

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This is called ‘UNIVERSAL ADULT FRANCHISE’ or ‘UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE.’ By 1900 New Zealand the only country where every adult had voting right.

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End Of Colonialism In Asia & Africa most countries were colonies under the control of European nations. People of the colonised countries had to struggles to achieve independence. Our country was one of the few colonies where people carried a nationalist struggle to liberate the country from the colonial rule Many countries became democracies immediately after the second world war in 1947.India achieved independence in 1947 & embarked on its journey to transform itself from a subject country to a democracy.

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Ghana, used to be a British colony named Gold C oast. It became independent in 1957. It was the first African country to be independent. It inspired other countries to struggle for freedom. Kwame Nkrumah, was a teacher, was active in the independence struggle of his country After independence, Nkrumah became the prime minister & president of Ghana. like Ghana, most countries that became democracies after gaining independence had a mixed record they could not remain democracies for long. Poland & several other countries became free from Soviet Union during 1989-90. Pakistan & Bangladesh made a transition from army rule to democracy in 1990s. This period points to more & more countries turning to democracy. But there are many countries where people can’t express their opinion freely

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Myanmar/Burma gained freedom from colonial rule in 1948 & became democracy. But it ended in 1962 with a military coup. In 1990 election were held for first time after 30 years. The national league for democracy, led by Aung San Suu Kyi, won the election. Due to the coercive policies of the military-ruled govt in Burma , about 6 to 10 lakh people in that country have been uprooted from their homes & have taken shelter elsewhere Despite being house arrested, suu kyi continued to campaign for democracy. According to her: “The struggle of people to live whole, meaningful lives as free & equal members of the world community.” She was also been awarded the Nobel peace prize.

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UNITED NATIONS ORGANISATION The United Nations is a global associated of nations of the world to help cooperation in international law, security, economic development & social equity. The UN secretary general is the chief administrative officer . What happens when a country attacks another country in an unjust manner? The UN security Council, an organ of the UN, is responsible for maintaining peace & security among countries. It can put together an international army & take action against the wrongdoer.

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WORLD BANK Who lends money to governments when they need it? The International Monetary Fund (IMF) does so. The World bank also gives loans to the governments. Before lending they ask the concerned government to show all its accounts & direct it to make changes in its economic policy .

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ABOUT UN Everyone of the 192 member countries of the UN has one vote in the UN General Assembly . It meets in regular yearly sessions under a president elected from among the representatives of the member countries UN appears to be a democratic organization. But the general assembly can’t take any decision about what action should be taken in a conflict between different countries. The 15 member security council of the UN takes such crucial decisions. The council has five permanent members-US, Russia, UK, France & China. The real power is with 5 permanent members .

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Each permanent member has veto power. It means that the council can’t take a decision if any permanent member says no to that decision. International Monetary Fund’s(IMF) 173 member states do not have equal voting rights. The vote of each country is weighed by how much money is contributed to the IMF. While nations are becoming more democratic than they were earlier, international organisation are becoming less democratic. As in the case of democracy within the nation, the initiative for democracy among nations has come from the struggles of the people

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DEMOCRACY PROMOTION Recently, many powerful countries in the world, particularly the US, have taken on the task of democracy promotion in the rest of the world. They say that propagating the values of democracy is not enough. Existing democracies should directly intervene in countries that are non- democratic to establish democracy there.

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WAR BETWEEEN AMERICA & IRAQ The war against Iraq by US was not authorised by the UN Security Council. Kofi Annan, the UN Secretary General, said that the US war on Iraq was illegal

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The End

Group no. 2 class 9 c:

Group no. 2 class 9 c

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