Computer Assisted Learning in Medical Education: Computer Assisted Learning in Medical Education Dr. S. Rajendiran Professor Of Pathology SRMC & RI Chennai. India Game Plan: Game Plan Why Computer Assisted Learning (CAL)? What are the technologies available? Is CAL useful? How to select an application? Examples Take home message Why CAL? Basic curriculum: Why CAL? Basic curriculum Premedical requirements Medical school Basic Physiology Pathophysiology Clinical Residency CME Why CAL? Teaching strategies: Why CAL? Teaching strategies Lecture Interactive Classroom Socratic Problem based learning Bedside See one, do one, teach one Explicit teaching Why CAL? Weaknesses of traditional approach: Why CAL? Weaknesses of traditional approach Rapid knowledge growth Reliance on memorization rather than problem solving Reliance on lecture method Passive recipients vs active Lecture: Transfer of notes from the teacher to the student….. Without passing through The minds of either!!!! Why CAL?: Why CAL? Computer can augment, enhance or replace traditional teaching methods Rapid access to body of information Data Images Immersive interfaces Any time, any place, any pace Simulated clinical situation Why CAL? Advantages: Why CAL? Advantages Interactive learning Active vs. passive solving Immediate student specific feedback Correct vs. incorrect, tailored response Tailored instruction Focus on areas of weakness Request help in interpretation WHY CAL? Advantages: WHY CAL? Advantages Objective testing Permits standardized testing Self-evaluation Fun! Why CAL? Experimentation: Why CAL? Experimentation Safe exploration of what-if in a well done scenario You can do things with simulated patients you can’t do with real ones WHY CAL? Case variety: WHY CAL? Case variety The ability to experience disease scenarios one otherwise wouldn’t see Simple: diabetes Complex: multiple disease, multiple medications WHY CAL? Problem-solving competency: WHY CAL? Problem-solving competency Book smart vs. real-world Memorization vs. thinking Testing Right answer vs. cost-effective vs. safest vs.quickest (fewest steps) What are the technology available? : What are the technology available? Provide greater efficiency Create better effectiveness Expand capabilities and reach Technology to improve efficiency: Technology to improve efficiency Computers and IT technology Web-based courses and materials IT-based administrative systems Classroom technology Gross anatomy at Mayo Medical School: Gross anatomy at Mayo Medical School 120 contact hours with radiology and embryology Full dissection course utilizing cadavers No lectures - Short briefing sessions Team-based learning Daily questions to provide formative feedback Computers in the lab to view CT images and use web-based learning tools Pass/Fail course © Mayo Clinic; courtesy of Dr. W. Pawlina PowerPoint Presentation: © Mayo Clinic; courtesy of Dr. W. Pawlina PowerPoint Presentation: © Mayo Clinic; courtesy of Dr. W. Pawlina Aspects of technology: Aspects of technology Provide greater efficiency Create better effectiveness Expand capabilities and reach Technology to improve effectiveness: Technology to improve effectiveness Simulation Ability to show processes in real time Safe environment Standards to determine fitness for practice Improvement in teamwork Exposure to rare events Types of simulators: Types of simulators Low-tech simulators Simple models and mannequins for simple tasks Screen-based computer simulators Programs to assess clinical decision making; e.g. acute life support Complex task simulators High-fidelity (touch, sound, visual etc.) computer simulation using actual tools; e.g. bronchoscopy Realistic patient simulators Full mannequin with complex physiology and multiple simulation modes; e.g. pathophysiology, emergency and ICU team training, rare events Aspects of technology: Aspects of technology Provide greater efficiency Create better effectiveness Expand capabilities and reach Technologies that expand capabilities and reach: Technologies that expand capabilities and reach Central multi-institutional repositories of teaching materials Virtual groups and meetings Open courseware Hand-held devices Objective real-time data mining 2D education model for new learning technologies: Print Deductive Inductive Incidental Apprenticeship 2D education model for new learning technologies Graphics Audio Video Animation Simulation Discovery Teacher-centered Student-centered Adapted from Nishikant Sonwalkar Spectrum of web-based educational activities: Spectrum of web-based educational activities interactive, “constructivist” didactic, “instructivist” low tech low cost low skill high tech high cost high skill Fully web based interactive degree course Computer assisted group work within traditional degree course MCQs for self-assessment on local intranet Freestanding web based study modules Email discussion groups Interactive IT based lecture feedback system Bulletin board and “virtual bar” Email contact between students & teachers Students post summaries on intranet Students are directed to online catalogues and databases Assignments submitted in digital format “Hard copy” materials on intranet Students use digital presentation formats Online books, atlases, archives, etc Web based non-interactive degree course Lectures in digital format BMJ 2001;322:40 PowerPoint Presentation: CONFERENCE: The confusion of one man multiplied by the number present Is CAL useful?: Is CAL useful? Carr : No significant difference D’Alessandro: CAL group better Devitt: CAL group better Elves: CAL group better Hilger: CAL group better Kallinowski: CAL group better How to select an application: How to select an application Very focused Aims and learning objectives User friendly Thought provoking Redirect if lost in the process Formative assessment Summative assessment How to select an application? Feedback and guidance: How to select an application? Feedback and guidance Feedback Correct vs. incorrect Summaries References Guidance Tailored feedback Hints Interactive help How to select an application? Intelligent tutoring: How to select an application? Intelligent tutoring Sophisticated systems can Intervene if a student goes down an unproductive path Gets stuck Appears to misunderstand a detail Mixed initiative systems Coaching vs. tutoring How to select an application? Graphics and Video: How to select an application? Graphics and Video Storage of images, video etc as part of a multimedia stream General appearance Skin lesions X-rays Sounds (cardiology, breath sounds) PowerPoint Presentation: Replication of HCV PowerPoint Presentation: CD81 hSR-BT LDL-R Attachment Entry PowerPoint Presentation: +ssRNA Translation (large pol y protein) PowerPoint Presentation: p19 p16 NF B STAT-3 Transcription of RNA Translation of polyproteins PowerPoint Presentation: -ssRNA Transcription PowerPoint Presentation: Transcription PowerPoint Presentation: Assembly Secretion Take Home message: Take Home message Technology itself does not make bad teaching better - possibly less painful Technology needs to be paired with other methods – driven by objectives, outcomes and appropriate instructional design Medical education needs to use the tools health professionals, other professions, the public and the students use – presently there is a large divide Any ???????????: Any ??????????? : U can become an engineer if u study in…..engineering college. Can U become a president if…..U study in the Presidency College??? U can find keys in Keyboard but can U find mother in motherboard ????? …………. Thank you Have a great day…….