Category: Education

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SOCIOLOGYFocus on the Philippines : 

SOCIOLOGYFocus on the Philippines

Leader: Melvin John Mendoza : 

Leader: Melvin John Mendoza Members: Vudz Michael Corre Danica Milka Natividad Christian Edbert de Jesus Jennielyn Tancinco Jerson Lecarto Jewel Ann Manarang


INTRODUCTION Success does not grow over night.

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A. EDUCATIONAL STRUCTURES Education is defined as a preparation for effective participation in social relations. Education is the consciously controlled process. Education is a major factor in economic growth. In the Philippines, literacy rate increased from 72% in 1960 to 94% in 1990. One third of the students do not get to reach grade six and one fourth of first year do not reach fourth year. Females are highly represented in all three levels of education. daughters receive more education but less land than sons; there are more opportunities for employment for males in the agricultural sector and; parents rely more on their daughters to study diligently, keep stable jobs, provide support in their retirement age.

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B. Formal and Non-Formal Education Education may be formal or informal. Informal education is learning through interaction with others in the group. Non-formal education consists of sets of definite learning goals and objectives. Non-formal education is not covered by traditional school system. Social organizations, private companies, government offices, livelihood training centers, and other institutions administer non-formal education. Formal education is synonymous with “school.” It sets definite goals and objectives reached through systematized, formal instruction methods. Schools are run by the state, by private individuals or corporations, or by religious groups.

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C. EDUCATION IN EARLY SOCIETIES In simple societies, the family provides education, assisted by elder members of the community. Informal instruction is given to prepare the youth for adult roles. Development of language, alphabet, and number system. School developed as the epitome of formal education. Invention of printing press. Learning became a structured and graduated experience.

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D. THE FUNCTIONS OF EDUCATION Education varies from one society to another. Education is a tool for achieving national identity. In societies, education becomes a vehicle for preparing the people for an industrial life. In a revolutionary society, education is aimed at winning hearts and minds to the revolutionary cause. to transmit the cultural heritage To help individual select social roles and train them for the roles they have chosen. careful planning of the subjects and courses, along with the necessary facilities which the school should provide; training of an adequate number of people according to the demands of specialized jobs; and matching the talents and abilities of the work force. to integrate into the cultural mainstream, subcultures and identities. to serve as source of social and cultural innovation.

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E. EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES Philippine education has been influenced by the Spanish and American colonizers. Objective of education under Spanish colonizers was to teach moral and religious subjects. Religion was the core of the curriculum and schools were used mainly to spread Christianity. Parish priests supervised the schools as their part of duties. Required readings were common prayers and the doctrina Christiana. Method of learning was memorization and the punishment was whipping. Higher education was placed great emphasis on virtue and letters. Some schools that were established under Spanish era were Royal College of San Jose (1605); and University of Santo Tomas (1645).

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The educated class was called illustrados. The system for primary education under Americans was to train students for the duties of citizenship and for the wider participation of the population for eventual self-governance. At present, the Philippine educational system is a bureaucratic structure under the supervision state. The Education act of 1982 took into account the recommendations and findings of the Presidential Commission to Study Philippine Education(PCSPE). In 1991, the report of the Joint Congressional Commission to study and review Philippine education was concluded and traced to two main reasons the government was not investing enough in our education system. The education department was poorly managed.

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To improve education, EDCOM recommended the ff: a. stress on basic education b. develop alternative learning systems c. Filipino as medium of instruction enlargement and enrichment of vocational/technical courses. d. restructure the Department of Education.

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F. KEY ISSUES IN PHILIPPINE EDUCATION Quality of Education Accessibility of education Government budget for education Mismatch

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G. PROPOSED REFORMS Upgrade the salary of teachers Budget per region Expand the scholarship program Encourage the participation of the business and industry sector in higher education. Development of a rationalized apprenticeship program by the private sector.



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