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Exploring Individual Differences and Team Dynamics:

Exploring Individual Differences and Team Dynamics Part 4 Leadership Challenges in the 21st Century

Introduction:

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 2 Introduction “We’re all in this together.” Why Teams? Teams are at the core of organizational efforts to: Reduce the time to market for products. Increase sales and provide quality service. Eliminate the barriers that separate functions within Collaborate with partners around the world. Reengineer the design of work processes. Improve the quality of products and services. Reduce costs and eliminate waste

Personality Characteristics:

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 3 Personality Characteristics Personality The enduring, organized, and distinctive pattern of behavior that describes an individual’s adaptation to a situation. A number of personality traits have been convincingly linked to work behavior and performance.

Personality Characteristics (cont’d):

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 4 Personality Characteristics (cont’d) Self-Esteem The extent to which people believe they are capable, significant, and worthwhile. Positive self-esteem is credited with: Enhancing performance . Increasing the likelihood of success. Fueling motivation.

Personality Characteristics (cont’d):

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 5 Personality Characteristics (cont’d) Locus of Control The extent to which individuals believe that they can control the environment and external events affecting them. Types of control: Internal locus of control External locus of control

Personality Characteristics (cont’d):

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 6 Personality Characteristics (cont’d) Internal Locus of Control The belief that events are primarily the result of one’s own behavior. Internals tend to be more proactive and take more risks. External Locus of Control The belief that much of what happens is controlled and determined by outside forces. Externals are more reactive to events and less able to rebound from stressful situations.

Personality Characteristics (cont’d):

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 7 Personality Characteristics (cont’d) Self Monitoring (SM) The degree to which individuals are capable of reading and using cues from their environment to determine their behavior. High SM scores The individual is able to read environmental and social cues about what is considered appropriate behavior and adjust accordingly. Low SM scores The individual tends to base their behaviors on internal things and are likely to appear consistent across different situations.

Personality Characteristics (cont’d):

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 8 Personality Characteristics (cont’d) Type A Personality Characterized by a sense of commitment, the tendency to set high standards and goals, a devotion to work, and a concern of time urgency. Type B Personality Characterized as easy-going, relaxed, and able to listen carefully and communicate more precisely than Type A individual.

Personality Characteristics (cont’d):

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 9 Personality Characteristics (cont’d) Resilience The ability to absorb high levels of disruptive change while displaying minimal dysfunctional behavior. Not all individuals have high resiliency. However, resiliency skills can be increased through training.

Authoritarianism:

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 10 Authoritarianism Authoritarianism is the degree to which one prefers power and status differences between people. People who are high in authoritarianism would show respect for titles, formal authority, status and rank. The degree to which leaders believe in authoritarianism will influence how they use their power and how they expect subordinates to behave in response.

Personality Characteristics (cont’d):

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 11 Personality Characteristics (cont’d) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) A series of questions that ask people to indicate their preferred way of acting, thinking, or feeling in different situations. The MBTI’s four dimensions: Introversion/Extroversion (I or O) Sensing/Intuitive (S or I) Feeling/Thinking (F or T) Perceiving/Judging (P or J)

MBTI Dimension: Introversion/Extroversion (I or E):

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 12 MBTI Dimension: Introversion/Extroversion (I or E) This dimension represents the source of one’s energy. Introverts Individuals who draw energy from inside, from themselves. Extroverts Individuals who draw energy from interacting with other people.

MBTI Dimension: Sensing/Intuitive (S or I):

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 13 MBTI Dimension: Sensing/Intuitive (S or I) This dimension describes how people prefer to gather data. Sensing Sensing people prefer concrete, real, factual, and structured data. Intuitive Intuitive people prefer the overall view, theories, new things, and become bored with detail and facts.

MBTI Dimension: Feeling/Thinking (F or T):

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 14 MBTI Dimension: Feeling/Thinking (F or T) This dimension represents how people prefer to make judgments. Feeling Feeling people tend to be interested in people and feelings rather than in analysis and logic. Thinking Thinking people rely on analysis, evidence and logic rather than on feelings and personal values.

MBTI Dimension: Perceiving/Judging (P or J):

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 15 MBTI Dimension: Perceiving/Judging (P or J) This dimension represents decision-making styles. Perceiving Perceiving people tend to see all sides of a situation and welcome new perspectives and new information before deciding. Judging Judging people are decisive and sure of themselves. They set goals and stay with them.

The “Big Five” Personality Traits Model:

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 16 The “Big Five” Personality Traits Model Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientious-ness Emotional Stability Assertive, gregarious and sociable versus quiet, reserved and timid. Agreeable, warm and cooperative versus disagreeable, cold and non-cooperative. Organized, dependable and responsible versus unorganized, unreliable and irresponsible. Calm, self-confident and secure versus anxious, tense, insecure and depressed. Openness to Experience Creative, curious and intellectual versus practical with narrow interests.

Matching Personalities with Jobs:

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 17 Matching Personalities with Jobs RIASEC Vocational Interest Typology Identifies six personality types in terms of the kinds of activities, and therefore jobs and careers, that an individual would prefer. Is based on the reasoning that if an individual’s personality matches his or her job and/or career, then he or she will be less likely to leave. Uses a “hexagonal calculus” — the two personality types that are directly across from each other are the most opposite.

Figure 13.1 RIASEC Vocational Interest Typology:

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 18 Figure 13.1 RIASEC Vocational Interest Typology Source: Based on J. Holland, Making Vocational Choices: A Theory of Vocational Personalities and Work Environments (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1985).

Matching Personalities with Jobs:

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 19 Matching Personalities with Jobs Attitudes Relatively lasting beliefs, feelings, and behavioral tendencies held by a person about specific objects, events, groups, issues, or persons. Result from a person’s background, personality, and life experiences. Theory of Cognitive Dissonance People tend to want consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and behaviors. If differences exist, people tend to want to reconcile those differences.

Matching Personalities with Jobs (cont’d):

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 20 Matching Personalities with Jobs (cont’d) Job Satisfaction The degree to which individuals feel positively or negatively about their jobs. Is the most commonly studied work attitude. Job Satisfaction and Performance Managers should not assume a simple cause-and-effect relationship between job satisfaction and performance. The relationship between job satisfaction and performance in any particular situation will depend on a complex set of variables.

Matching Personalities with Jobs (cont’d):

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 21 Matching Personalities with Jobs (cont’d) The Job Description Index (JDI) Evaluates specific characteristics of a person’s job. The work itself Pay Relations with coworkers Quality of supervision Promotional opportunities The JDI scale helps managers pinpoint sources of dissatisfaction so they can take appropriate action.

Matching Personalities with Jobs (cont’d):

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 22 Matching Personalities with Jobs (cont’d) Perception The way people experience, process, define, and interpret the world around them. Perceptions are influenced by an individual’s experiences, needs, personality, and education. As a result, two individuals may view the same situation differently.

Matching Personalities with Jobs (cont’d):

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 23 Matching Personalities with Jobs (cont’d) Ability An existing capacity to perform various tasks needed in a given situation. Ability may be classified as mental, mechanical, and psychomotor. In the organizational setting, ability and effort are key determinants of employee behavior and performance.

The Difference Between Groups and Teams:

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 24 The Difference Between Groups and Teams Group A group is normally defined as two or more individuals who interact with one another. Team A group of interdependent individuals with shared commitments to accomplish a common goal or purpose.

Figure 13.2 Critical Requirements of Effective Teams:

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 25 Figure 13. 2 Critical Requirements of Effective Teams

Characteristics of Groups:

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 26 Characteristics of Groups Formal Groups Are deliberately created by the organization to accomplish specific tasks and serve the needs of the organization. Departments, divisions, task forces, project groups, quality circles, committees, and boards of directors. Informal Groups Self-created groups that evolve out of the formal organization based on proximity, common interests, or needs of individuals. Social clubs, amateur teams, and car pools

Figure 13.4 Group Roles and Associated Behaviors:

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 27 Figure 13. 4 Group Roles and Associated Behaviors

Figure 13.3 Inputs to Designing Effective Teams:

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 28 Figure 13. 3 Inputs to Designing Effective Teams

The Impact of Group Size:

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 29 The Impact of Group Size Effective task group sizes can range from two to sixteen members. As group size increases: More human resources are available to perform the work and accomplish needed tasks. Communication, participation, and coordination become more difficult as group size increases. Freeriding can also occur when one or more team members expends decreasing amounts of effort because their contributions are less visible.

Team Goals:

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 30 Team Goals Team goals provide a clear, engaging sense of direction and tells us what is going to be accomplished. When team members share goals, they work harder and longer on the tasks required for high performance.

How Teams Develop and Form:

© 2007 Thomson/South-Western. All rights reserved. 13– 31 How Teams Develop and Form Although most groups are in a continuous state of change, team development does follow a general pattern. Teams appear to go through a five-stage development process: Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning

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