The Diffusion of Green Buildings

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The Diffusion of Green Buildings as Environmental Innovations: 

The Diffusion of Green Buildings as Environmental Innovations MooK Han Kim yohanna@eden.rutgers.edu

Diffusion of Innovation: 

Diffusion of Innovation Innovation? Invention → Innovation → Diffusion … → Utilization (Environmental Innovation) Models of Innovation Diffusion Epidemic Model (Consumer Learning) Rank Model (Consumer Heterogeneity) City Hierarchy “Bandwagon Effects” (Role of Standard)

Green Buildings : 

Green Buildings Definition Design and construction practices that significantly reduce or eliminate the negative impact of buildings on the environment and occupants U.S. Green Building Council (US GBC) A national non-profit organization, organized as a result of green building movement Developer and administrator of the LEED ® Green Building Rating System

LEED ®: 

LEED ® Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design ® Green Building Rating System LEED ® is a registered trademark of USGBC Consensus-based checklist approach (Five credit categories: Site, Water, Energy, Material and Indoor Environmental Quality) Four levels of certification (Platinum, Gold, Silver, and Certified) Registration → Evaluation → Certification

LEED Committee Structure: 

LEED Committee Structure

LEED as a de-facto Green Building Standard in the U.S.: 

LEED as a de-facto Green Building Standard in the U.S. All 50 states and D.C. have LEED projects Used as a performance evaluation criteria for many federal green building initiatives … and for initiatives for bout 20 states and 60 municipalities From 2001 to 2005, the number of certified and registered projects have almost doubled each year About 600 certified green buildings and 4600 registered projects exist

Diffusion of Certified Green Buildings: 

Diffusion of Certified Green Buildings

Diffusion of Certified Green Buildings: 

Diffusion of Certified Green Buildings

Diffusion of Certified Green Buildings: 

Diffusion of Certified Green Buildings

Diffusion of Certified Green Buildings: 

Diffusion of Certified Green Buildings

Diffusion of Certified Green Buildings: 

Diffusion of Certified Green Buildings

Diffusion of Certified Green Buildings: 

Diffusion of Certified Green Buildings

Diffusion of Registered Projects: 

Diffusion of Registered Projects

Diffusion of Registered Projects: 

Diffusion of Registered Projects

Diffusion of Registered Projects: 

Diffusion of Registered Projects

Diffusion of Registered Projects: 

Diffusion of Registered Projects

Diffusion of Registered Projects: 

Diffusion of Registered Projects

Diffusion of Registered Projects: 

Diffusion of Registered Projects

Top 10 US Cities Have Green Building Projects: 

Top 10 US Cities Have Green Building Projects Certified Buildings Seattle, WA Atlanta, GA Portland, OR Pittsburgh, PA Chicago, IL San Francisco, CA Washington, DC Grand Rapids, MI Sacramento, CA Durham, NC Registered Projects Chicago, IL New York, NY Seattle, WA Portland, OR Washington, DC Atlanta, GA Los Angeles, CA Grand Rapids, MI San Francisco, CA Pittsburgh, PA

More Cities and Communities Have Green Buildings…: 

More Cities and Communities Have Green Buildings…

…But “Central Cities” Have More Green Buildings : 

…But “Central Cities” Have More Green Buildings

Even More Cities and Communities Are Participating…: 

Even More Cities and Communities Are Participating…

… “Central Cities” Rule: 

… “Central Cities” Rule

Office Buildings Are Decentralizing…: 

Office Buildings Are Decentralizing… Lang’s “Edgeless cities”: Sprawl of office buildings in the 13 largest metropolitan areas From 1999 to 2005, downtown office grew by 7.7%, edge city by 1.5%... …Edgeless city by 14.8% in Sq. Ft. Downtown → Edge City → Edgeless City

… But Green Buildings Like Downtowns: 

… But Green Buildings Like Downtowns

Where do they cluster?: Certified Buildings: 

Where do they cluster? : Certified Buildings

Where will they cluster?: Registered Projects: 

Where will they cluster? : Registered Projects

US Mayor’s Climate Protection Agreement: 

US Mayor’s Climate Protection Agreement

So What?: 

So What? Green building may go mainstream, but still minority: Much to be desired… What could be the role of green building in sustainable cities? Central Cities “Green Premium” or better office development Vision for green metropolis Others Economically & environmentally feasible project Stimulation for further sustainable city discourse

The Diffusion of Green Buildings as Environmental Innovations: 

The Diffusion of Green Buildings as Environmental Innovations MooK Han Kim yohanna@eden.rutgers.edu

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