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Bengal at a glance 2. West Bengal : Its geography 3. West Bengal : Zonal Classification according to climate 4. Introduction to Vernacular architecture 5. Factors influencing Vernacular architecture 6. Zonal Vernacular Architecture . Northern Bengal . Central Bengal . Southern Bengal . South West Bengal 7. Conclusion 8. References BENGAL AT A GLANCE : BENGAL AT A GLANCE . Bengal was spilt into East and West Bengal . East Bengal became the eastern wing, Bangladesh . West Bengal became a state of India with Calcutta as the capital . The state is long and narrow, running from the delta of the Ganges river system at the Bay of Bengal in the south to the heights of the Himalayas at Darjeeling in the north WEST BENGAL: GEOGRAPHY : WEST BENGAL: GEOGRAPHY Placed with three international frontiers - Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan West Bengal is located at 21o31' and 27o14' North Latitude & 86o35' and 89o53' East Longitude The great Himalayas start a distance of only 300 miles from the Bay of Bengal and the coastal tropical rain forest, Sundarbans. BENGAL : ZONAL CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS : BENGAL : ZONAL CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS NORTHERN BENGAL (THE HILLS) CENTRAL BENGAL (THE PLAINS) SOUTHERN BENGAL (THE COAST) VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE : VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE The term vernacular architecture refers to those buildings made by common builders in an informal way, rather than by architects using design methodologies. Even though the idea of the vernacular in architecture could sound strange to many, it is not so much so, if we consider that only 10 percent of the buildings in which we live or work are designed by architects, and a huge 90 percent of the world's architecture is vernacular. Despite its being linked to tradition, it could still be considered a state-of-the-art activity, because it offers alternatives to conventional architectural practices that are highly accountable for today’s energy crisis. Slide 7: FACTORS INFLUENCING VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE 1.CLIMATIC & GEOLOGICAL 2.LOCAL MATERIALS USED 3.TECHNOLOGY ADAPTED Slide 8: 1. NORTHERN BENGAL CLIMATIC & GEOLOGICAL LOCAL MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY LOCATION TEMPARATURE RAINFALL SLATE WOOD STONE LIME TILES SLOPED ROOF SOUTH FACING WINDOWS GREEN HOUSE EFFECT BUILDINGS ON STILTS Climatic & Geological : Climatic & Geological Parts of North Bengal ( Darjeeling and Kalimpong), lies between Latitude 27 and 28 degrees north, and longitude 87 to 89 degrees east. . It is a rugged strip of vertical mountain country. Wedged between Nepal, Tibet, Bhutan is just 90 kms wide and 150 kms deep. The climate varies between the tropical heat of the valleys and the alpine cold of the snowy regions. Rainfall averaging 348 cms. Materials Available : Materials Available WOOD STONE SLATE MAY – FAIR, DARJEELING Materials Available : Materials Available TILES LIME TIN Technology Adapted : Technology Adapted SLOPING ROOF / CURVED ROOF SOUTH FACING WINDOWS Technology Adapted : Technology Adapted GREEN HOUSE EFFECT BUILDINGS ON STILTS 2. CENTRAL BENGAL : 2. CENTRAL BENGAL CLIMATIC & GEOLOGICAL LOCAL MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY SLOPED ROOF VERANDAH/ COURTYARD CLEARSTOREY THICK WALLS LOCATION TEMPARATURE RAINFALL MUD/CLAY BAMBOO GRASS THATCH/ KHAD (STRAW FROM DRIED PADDY OR WHEAT PLANTS) Climatic & Geological : Climatic & Geological Central Bengal has a tropical climate. The north is cooler, but the humidity is high. The hot season lasts from March to early June, with daytime temperatures ranging from 38 to 45 °c. Winter on the plains is also mild, with minimum temperatures rarely dropping below 15°C Rainfall is rare in winter . The humidity is thus substantially reduced, making winter a very pleasant season on the plains The cold season lasts for about three months, and is followed by a brief month-long mild spring season Materials Available : Materials Available MUD/CLAY AAT CHALA HOUSE, WITH EIGHT SLOPING ROOFS IN TWO TIERS, VISHNUPUR,WEST BENGAL BAMBOO THATCH/KHAD Classification Of Rural House : Classification Of Rural House Structurally, the traditional rural houses may be grouped in seven types: CHOUSHALA (four rooms on four raised sides and a uthan or open space in the middle); BRITIGHAR (the house and all its rooms fenced within one boundary); ATCHALA (house with eight roofs, four over the main building and four over the verandas attached on each side), Classification Of Rural House : Classification Of Rural House POSTAGHAR (house constructed on elevated platform); DISHALA BANDH GHAR (house of two large rooms on two separate platforms and an open place between them); SUSTHITA GHAR (house surrounded by verandas on all four sides); House of the tribal people. Technology Adapted : Technology Adapted The traditional Bengali dwelling provided a model for the British bungalow (BANGLA). The BANGLA was a hut, generally built with a distinctively curved roof ,also called EKABANGLA CHARCHALA is a rural hut in West Bengal with twelve sloping sides in the roof in three tiers. JORBANGLA is a twin hut structure The walls were generally made of mud. Where the mud was not suitable for this purpose, walls were constructed of bunches of straw or mats, tied to each other and to the bamboo frame to form walls. Bangla type structure With gable ended roof, Tomb Of Fateh khan,Qadam Rasul Complex, Gaur Chaitanya Deva temple at Guptipara, Burdwan .(late 18th century) Technology Adapted : Technology Adapted The frame of a bangla was typically constructed entirely of bamboo, though wood posts and beams were occasionally used in the houses of the very wealthy. The thatched roof generally extended beyond the walls to provide additional shelter from the rains and one side of the roof was often extended four or five feet beyond the wall and supported by a row of bamboo poles to create a small veranda. Technology Adapted : Technology Adapted In many banglas, the door was the only opening, this opening might be covered by a wooden door which folded from the side. Windows, when present, were shaded in the same way. Floors were made of mud and were generally raised a foot or two above the ground to provide some protection from flooding. The size of the huts varied little. Most were between 4x3m and 4x5m. Mud plastered, wattle walls two slope paddy thatch roof. Vishnupur, West Bengal Form and climatic response : Form and climatic response Bunglas are always thatched with straw on the roof and the walls are sometimes of bricks and often of mats. There are curtains over the doorway to keep out the wind. The Europeans adopted almost universally the simple or elongated pyramidal roof, sometimes with clerestory. The British settlers expanded the traditional veranda to encircle the house. Form and climatic response : Form and climatic response The corners of the veranda were often partitioned off as separate rooms for bathing or sleeping Basic form later developed and became more complex, though the size and complexity of the floor plan was limited by the necessity of maintaining airflow around and through each room. Other Influenced Architecture : Other Influenced Architecture The rural form of house, the BANGLA , influenced the Mughal and the Rajput architecture. The BANGLA left its mark on the architecture of two great Indian Empires. Jahangir introduced the form to the Mughal architecture and Shah Jahan glorified it reproducing it in red sandstone, white marble and whatever available locally. The name remains and Bangla pavilions are seen in most later Mughal palace complex. Rajputs, Jats, Sikhs all incorporated it into their monumental Vocabulary. Example such as the Lattan’s mosque at Gaur shows central bay covered by charchala roof with great effect. 3. SOUTHERN BENGAL : 3. SOUTHERN BENGAL CLIMATIC & GEOLOGICAL LOCAL MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY RAMMED EARTH BAMBOO GRASS THATCH/ KHAD (STRAW FROM DRIED PADDY OR WHEAT PLANTS) LOCATION TEMPARATURE RAINFALL SLOPED ROOF BAMBOO FRAMEWORK NEW TIN ROOFING DURABLE GRASS THATCHING Climatic & Geological : Climatic & Geological The area has subtropical monsoon climate dominated by heavy summer monsoon rains. During summer the maximum temperature exceeds more than 40°C, and in winter minimum temperatures can drop to about 7ºC. Due to a heavy storm, followed by a heavy rain, a large number of trees gets knocked down and many houses gets severely damaged. Materials Available : Materials Available THATCH/KHAD RAMMED EARTH BAMBOO FRAMEWORK Technology Adapted : Technology Adapted The vernacular architecture and construction methods have developed through the local innovation and availability of building material. The general building tradition in the area uses clay walls plastered on a bamboo framework or rammed earth core walls up to two stories. The walls support a roof construction made of bamboo and covered with paddy-straw with a thatching of a more durable grass. Technology Adapted : Technology Adapted The quality and durability of the paddy-straw for thatching has been reduced, hence the need for roof maintenance has increased over the years. This has led to the use of modern concrete based and brick walls constructions being used in the few newer buildings in the rural areas and more commonly in the towns 4. SOUTH WEST BENGAL : 4. SOUTH WEST BENGAL In the south west, the borderland abutting Bihar and Orissa is known as the chotanagpur plateau. Sparsely jungled hills inhibited by the tribal people – Santals, Bhumijs, Mandas, Oraons. CLIMATIC & GEOLOGICAL LOCAL MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY TEMPARATURE RAINFALL WATTLE MUD AND DUNG KHAD THICK WALLS SLOPED ROOF THATCHING Materials Available : Materials Available THATCH/KHAD RAMMED EARTH Technology Adapted : Technology Adapted Cottages are small and thatched with wattle walls finished in a thick coat of mud and dung mix, are remarkable more for decoration than form. The walls are plastered with dung and painted annually as a part of autumn dewali celebration. Woman use fingers to cover the outer wall with paintings such as imaginary flowers, animals such as peacocks and elephants and geometric designs CONCLUSION : CONCLUSION Realistic and replicable options for improved building techniques for local people using low cost, low energy and locally produced building materials, such as: rammed earth walls, compressed earth blocks, fibre cement tiles and bamboo. Climatic design responses reflecting the local micro-climate with special focus on cooling and shading, improved natural ventilation, cross ventilation, roof top ventilation, window openings, open bamboo shutters Protection against monsoon rains: eaves, galleries, drainage, elevated ground floors Water use and reuse, rainwater harvesting techniques, water purification techniques, recycling and purification of waste water. REFERENCES : REFERENCES TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE OF EASTERN INDIA – Dr. AJAY KHARE TRADITIONAL BUILDINGS OF INDIA – EILAY COOPER AND BARRY DAWSON PABNAR AITIHASIK IMARAT – Dr. AISHA BEGAM www.google.com www.pdf-search-engine.com www.banglapedia.com You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.