SECURITY ASPECTS OF A BUILDING : SECURITY ASPECTS OF A BUILDING & FIRE FIGHTING DEMAND CONTENTS : CONTENTS 1. SECURITY
FOUR FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF MULTIHAZARD BUILDING DESIGN.
SECURITY SYSTEM DESIFN
ISSUES TO BE CONSIDERED
SECURITY SYSTEM MEASUREMENTS
2. FIRE FIGHTING DEMAND
FIRE FIGHTING AND FIRE FIGHTERS
PLANS FOR FIRE PROTECTION
FIRE FIGHTERS SECURITY : SECURITY FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION.
From medieval castles to modern airports, security concerns have always influenced architecture. Castles appeared during the reign of King Stephen of England because they were the best way to defend the land and people. But castle design changed over the centuries in response to both innovations in warfare and politics, from concentric design in the late medieval period to entirely decorative castles in the 19th century. Slide 4: The same pattern was followed in India .the rajputs and the mughals built forts and palaces .In respect to safeguard their reign the used some security aspects of their type .Which changed with time and political change. The style they used is still followed but its modified.
Here are few examples :
Agra Construction of the
fort started in 1156 and was
finished in 1605.
The wall has 2 gates, the
Delhi Gate and the Amar Singh Gate.
You can only enter the fort via the Slide 5: (source:www.twf.org) Ariel view Slide 6: CHITTAURGARH FORT: It is a fine example of the Rajput style of architecture.
The fort is located on a hill that dominates the modern township of Chittor
It crowns a seven-mile- long hill, covering 700 acres (280 hectares), with its fortifications, temples, towers and palaces
Placed 152 m high rocky hill. Chittorgah fort is the India's largest fort and the SECURE/SAFE : SECURE/SAFE The design and construction of safe and secure buildings continues to be the primary goal for owners, architects, engineers, and project managers.
in recognizing concern for natural disasters, acts of terrorism, indoor air quality, materials hazards, and fires. the design team must take a multi-hazard approach towards building design that accounts for the potential hazards and vulnerabilities.
Applicable multi-hazard events include: bomb threats, terrorist acts, nuclear, radiological, chemical or biological threats, fires, medical emergencies, demonstrations and civil disorders, power failures, spills or leaks of hazardous substances, and natural disasters (hurricanes, tornados, floods, earthquakes, etc.).
Most security and safety measures involve a balance of operational, technical, and physical safety methods. Slide 8: Consistent with areas of professional responsibility, it is useful to identify four fundamental principles of multi-hazard building design:
Plan for Fire ProtectionPlanning for fire protection for a building involves a systems approach that enables the designer to analyze all of the building's components as a total building fire safety system package.
Ensure Occupant Safety and HealthSome injuries and illnesses are related to unsafe or unhealthy building design and operation. These can usually be prevented by measures that take into account issues such as indoor air quality, electrical safety, fall protection, ergonomics, and accident prevention.
Resist Natural HazardsEach year U.S. taxpayers pay over $35 billion for recovery efforts, including repairing damaged buildings and infrastructure, from the impacts of hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, tornados, blizzards, and other natural disasters. A significant percentage of this could be saved if our buildings properly anticipated the risk associated with major natural hazards.
Provide Security for Building Occupants and AssetsEffective secure building design involves implementing counter measures to detect, delay, and respond to attacks from human aggressors. It also provides for mitigating measures to limit hazards and prevent catastrophic damage should an attack occur.
(source: Safe Whole Building Design Guide.htm) SECURITY SYSTEM DESIGN : SECURITY SYSTEM DESIGN Security system design depends on the building type and location, and on what needs to be secured. Systems must also be responsive to codes and regulations, appropriately interactive with other building systems, cost effective in both the short and long term, and adaptable enough for foreseeable needs. Finally, security needs should be addressed early in the design process.
Building security is about installing the latest electronic gear and software package. A consideration for building types with highly specific occupancy considerations. (Source: Building Security:
An Architect's Guide
by Walter Cooper and Robert DeGrazio ) ISSUES TO BE CONSIDERED: : ISSUES TO BE CONSIDERED: Two purposes of security are -
First, security systems and devices (e.g., closed-circuit TV cameras) play an important role in reducing facility owners' liability to lawsuits.
Second, security components not only protect against harm but can provide crucial documentation in the investigation of crimes that have occurred. 1. First, effective security is always an interplay of three elements: natural and architectural barriers, including anything from landscaping strategies. 2. Local building codes regarding ease of exit during fire and other emergency situations present another set of issues affecting building security. Slide 11: 3. Another important design factor is the potential offensiveness of security systems. Security systems must often be designed in such a way that access control is not obtrusive, that users of a facility don't feel intimidated by security devices, 4. The kinds of security issues that must be considered always depend in large measure on the kind of building being designed. Designers of retail stores, for example, must pay close heed to security at loading dock and delivery areas and at customer and employee ingress/egress points; hotel architects must weigh security concerns against the importance of maintaining free public access to many hotel areas (Source: www.nfec.com) Security System Components : Security System Components Lighting: One of the most basic components of a security system. Carefully designed and coordinated interior and exterior lighting systems can exert a significant effect.
Perimeter control: Includes elements such as fences, walls, and landscaped berms that protect a facility's potential access ways.
Access control: Includes the immense variety of card-readers, chip-readers, and electronic locks that read information encoded on the cards, disks, or keys carried by employees. Popular systems incorporate insertion- or swipe-readers that interpret magnetic-stripe cards, or proximity-readers that do not require physical contact with the cards they read. Some more sophisticated systems incorporate biometric devices based on fingerprints, voiceprints, retinal patterns and the like. to allow or forbid access to restricted areas . Slide 13: Pedestrian traffic control: Closely related to access control, covers devices such as electronic turnstiles equipped with card-readers. Banks of turnstiles often include larger gateways, also equipped with card readers, for wheelchair access.
Intrusion detection: Includes the many types of sensors and alarm systems. Infrared motion sensors can be ceiling- or wall-mounted; although such detectors are mostly used to protect interior spaces, there are motion detectors available for exterior use. Other devices detect the shattering of glass (2), or the opening of windows and doors (4, 5). Video motion detectors that detect movement on video signals transmitted from closed-circuit TV (CCTV) cameras are also available. Slide 14: Monitoring and surveillance: Includes CCTV cameras and the monitors and security command centers they serve. Infrared cameras are capable of producing high-quality images in complete darkness. Pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) devices permit the remote control of CCTV cameras; video switchers allow multiple cameras to display on a single monitor;. The monitoring of an entire security system is often performed from a single command center ,or nerve center. In modern integrated systems, all security system information is carried over a single fiber optic-cable infrastructure also capable of carrying other building control systems (Source: www.vivotek.com) Few measures which will help to prevent the building from various threats: : Few measures which will help to prevent the building from various threats: SITE PLANNING:
The goal for site planning is to maximize standoff distance for potential large explosive devices and to provide clear zones adjacent to the building to facilitate observation of small explosive devices. Impact-engineered site furniture and appropriately designed bollards can enhance both site amenity and security . Stand-off distances could be achieved by passive measures such as screen walls, planter boxes, bollards, barriers, etc, or, by security measures related to access control, surveillance, detection, etc Low screen walls (National Gallery of Art - security upgrades at the East Wing, Washington, DC.Photo courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution ) Slide 17: Planter boxes and bollards. Bollards. Slide 18: Buildings have key structural
elements that help support
their loads in a vital way.
These key structural
elements may include
vertical columns, horizontal
transfer beams, long span
beams (of more than 20m)
and cantilever structures.
Stand-off distances should
be provided for these
elements. Otherwise, if these
key elements are damaged
or destroyed, they could
result in disproportionate
collapse of the building. PROVIDE EMERGENCY EVACUATION MEASURES: : PROVIDE EMERGENCY EVACUATION MEASURES: Provide self luminescent markings where the backup power for the emergency
lighting and exit signs is not of the self contained battery pack type integral with the lighting and sign fitting.In order to have some means of directing building occupants out of the building to safety,
self luminescent markings should be used in a building whose existing emergency
lighting and exit signs take their standby power supply from a centralized source. CHECK FIRE PROOFING : CHECK FIRE PROOFING Steel looses its strength when exposed
to the heat of a fire. The structural steel
members of a building are therefore
constructed with fire protection comprising an insulating layer of
materials such as concrete, sprayed-on
cementitious coating, dry-boarding and
intumescent coating. CONFIGURE SERVICES SYSTEMS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE: Configure the controls of central air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation (ACMV), and other localized systems for emergency response to stop the exchange of outdoor and indoor air quickly. Examples of fireproofing for structural steel. Slide 21: PROVIDE VARIOUS SECURITY MEASURES:
Implement security measures related to access control, surveillance and detection. Access control: Provide waiting space as far away as is practical from the building exterior for the conduct of security checks of vehicles entering the building complex. Surveillance: CCTV cameras should be strategically positioned to focus on the building perimeter, entry/exit points and other high risk areas such as car park entrances. Detection: An effective intruder alarm system supplements the physical security of the building premises. Various types of alarm systems such as magnetic contact, break-glass sensor and motion detector systems can be employed to detect intrusions. Slide 22: PROVIDE REINFORCED CONCRETE LIFT SHAFTS AND STAIRCASE CORES:
Reinforced concrete lift shafts and staircase cores are better at withstanding impact and help keep evacuation and escape routes intact. They also increase the strength of the building as a whole. During an emergency, a strengthened staircase core is very important AVOID USE OF SCISSORS STAIRCASES:
A scissors type staircase is essentially an arrangement of putting two sets of stairs into a single staircase core. in a situation where damage occurs to the core, it is likely that both stairs in the core would be disabled. Slide 23: KEEP AIR INTAKES OUT OF REACH: Design the location and height of air intakes of air-conditioning and mechanical
ventilation systems to prevent easy access by unauthorized persons. Outdoor air intakes supply fresh air to the air handling units (AHU) of a building. The
AHU together with the environmental control system (ECS) of the building help circulate air into the building to keep it ventilated. Slide 24: PROVIDE SMOKE STOP LIFT LOBBIES: Provide smoke stop lobbies for all lifts serving more than 4 storey to minimize the vertical spread of smoke up lift shafts. Without smoke stop lobby.
Smoke from fire spreads to upper storeys via lift shaft. With smoke stop lobby.
Smoke from fire is prevented from spreading. AVOID COMMON LIFT SYSTEMS, LIMIT ACCESS POINTS AND PROVIDE CLEAR SIGNAGE : AVOID COMMON LIFT SYSTEMS, LIMIT ACCESS POINTS AND PROVIDE CLEAR SIGNAGE Avoid the design of common lift systems serving the car park storeys and the main
building that bypass the main lobby/reception area. Pedestrian paths should be channeled through a limited number of access points.
Signage should be clear to avoid confusion and direct visitors to their destinations
efficiently. Slide 26: PROTECT AGAINST FLYING GLASS: Many buildings are often designed with a significant amount of glazing or glass finishes. In the event of a
blast, the glass can shatter into sharp, high velocity fragments and injure
occupants and passers-by. Protection against flying glass can be achieved in 3 main ways:
a) Applying a transparent polyester anti-shatter film to the glass, or
b) installing laminated glass which is more blast resistant, or
c) installing a blast resistant secondary glazing on the inside of the existing
exterior glazing. (Source: enhancing building security) FIRE FIGHTING&FIRE FIGHTERS : FIRE FIGHTING&FIRE FIGHTERS Slide 28: Firefighting is the act of extinguishing destructive fires. A firefighter fights these fires to prevent destruction of life, property and the environment. Firefighting is a highly technical profession which requires years of training and education in order to become proficient. Firefighters are rescuers extensively trained primarily to put out hazardous fires that threaten civilian populations and property, to rescue people from car accidents, collapsed and burning buildings and other such situations. (Source: www.edweb.com) Slide 29: In India municipalities are bound by law to have a fire brigade and participate in a regional fire service. Each city has its own fire brigade. The main functions of firefighting services in India are provision of fire protection and of services during emergencies such as building collapses, drowning cases, gas leakage, oil spillage, road and rail accidents, bird and animal rescues, fallen trees, appropriate action during natural calamities, and so on. Industrial corporations also have their own firefighting service. Each airport and seaport has its own firefighting units. (Source: www.arff.com) Slide 30: Because FIREFIGHTERS are the first responders to people in critical conditions, firefighters provide many other valuable services to the community they serve, such as:
Emergency medical services, as emergency medical technicians or as licensed paramedics, staffing ambulances.
Hazardous materials mitigation (HAZMAT)
Search and rescue
Community disaster support
In addition, firefighters also service in specialized fields, such as:
Wildland fire suppression
Shipboard and military fire and rescue (source:www.icardfirerescue.com) Slide 31: Fire fighting has several basic skills: prevention, self preservation, rescue, preservation of property and fire control. Firefighting is further broken down into skills which include size-up, extinguishing, ventilation, and salvage and overhaul. Search and Rescue, which has already been mentioned, is performed early in any fire scenario and many times is in unison with extinguishing and ventilation. (Source:www.edweb.com) PLAN FOR FIRE PROTECTION : PLAN FOR FIRE PROTECTION Fire protection engineers must be involved in all aspects of the design in order to ensure a reasonable degree of protection of human life from fire and the products of combustion as well as to reduce the potential loss from fire (i.e., real and personal property, information, organizational operations). Planning for fire protection in/around a building involves an integrated systems approach that
enables the designer to analyze all of the
building's components as a total building
fire safety system package. PEARL HARBOR, Hawaii (Aug. 29 2007) - Flames push water from a fire hose back as a federal firefighter assigned to Navy Region Hawaii Federal Fire Department combats a fire during an aircraft firefighting training (source:www.firetensiom.com) Slide 33: Issues in developing a successful fire protection design
Design Team—It is most important that the project delivery team include a Fire Protection Engineer with adequate experience and knowledge in fire protection and life safety design.
Design Standards and Criteria (i.e., Building Code, etc.)—to be utilized by the design team, including statutory requirements, voluntary requirements addressing owner's performance needs.
Site Requirements—A quality site design will integrate performance requirements associated with fire department access, suppression, and separation distances and site/building security.
Fire department access
Design buildings with uncomplicated layouts that enable firefighters to locate an area quickly.
Accommodate the access of fire apparatus into and around the building site like the Fire hydrants. Slide 34: Building Construction Requirements, at a minimum will address the following elements:
Construction type, allowable height, and area
Fire rating, materials, and systems
Exit stairway enclosure Egress Requirements, at a minimum will address the following elements:
Exit stairway remoteness
Areas of refuge
Door locking arrangements (security interface Slide 35: Fire Detection and Notification System Requirements, at a minimum will address the following elements:
Survivability of systems
Fire Suppression Requirements, at a minimum will address the following elements:
Type of automatic fire extinguishing system
Water-based fire extinguishing system
Non-water-based fire extinguishing system
Standpipes and fire department hose outlets Slide 36: Emergency Power, Lighting, and Exit Signage, at a minimum will address the following elements:
Survivability of systems
Distributed Energy Resources
Special Fire Protection Requirements, at a minimum will address the following elements:
Engineered smoke control systems
Fireproofing and firestopping
Mission critical facility needs Slide 37: FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENTS SMOKE DETECTOR 2. FIRE ALARM 3. AUTOMATIC FIRE SPRINKLERS Slide 38: 4. DRY CHEMICAL FIRE EXTINGUISHER 5. WATER TYPE FIRE EXTINGUISHER 6. CARBON DIOXIDE FIRE EXTINGUISHER 7. FIRE HYDRANT Slide 39: 8. FIRE RETARDANT FOAM, OR FIRE SUPPRESSION FOAM:
is a foam used for fire suppression. Its role is to cool the fire and to coat the fuel, preventing its contact with oxygen, resulting in suppression of the combustion. q A fire truck demonstrating Class A foam 9. FIRE FIGHTING HOSE Hose box Hose pipe Slide 40: 10. FIRE FIGHTING VEHICLE Slide 41: FIRE FIGHTERS: 1. Facepiece
2. Breathing tubes
3. Breathing tube couplings
4. Body harness and pad
5. Breathing bag
7. Waist strap
8. Bail assembly handle (standby position) 9. Canister release strap
10. Pressure relief valve and pull tab timer
12. Valve housing REFERENCES : REFERENCES BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Ernst and Peter Neufert , ARCHITECTS? DATA . Third edition.
BCA,SCDF,ISD and SPF (joint authors), Enhancing building security , useful and practical measures , January 2005.
2001 the American Institute of Architects , Building Security Through Design.
Walter Cooper and Robert DeGrazio, Building Security: An Architect's Guide .
www.indiatourism.com Slide 43: THANK YOU! PRESENTED BY: