logging in or signing up STEEL STRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE 4 soumik.sim Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Uploaded from authorPOINTLite Insert YouTube videos in PowerPont slides with aS Desktop Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Copy Does not support media & animations WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 7474 Category: Entertainment License: All Rights Reserved Like it (8) Dislike it (0) Added: April 17, 2009 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 3 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... By: abualreshedaltin (1 month(s) ago) please i want to down load this presentation thnxxxx Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: kumarvishal4u (8 month(s) ago) i want to download this presentation . please allow me Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: dasns143 (10 month(s) ago) pls i need to prepare steel structures for my xam pls download for me manikanta - hcu Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: palas401 (13 month(s) ago) plz send dis ppt to me:SECURITY-ASPECTS-BUILDING-FIRE-FIGHTING-CONTENTS-SECURE-SAFE-SYSTEM-DESIGN Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: rchitects (14 month(s) ago) please all me to download this presentation. Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close loading.... See all Premium member Presentation Transcript Steel structural systems : Steel structural systems steel structural systems hehbok , mahesh , meganathan , vignesh Slide 2: 1. Tensegrity Structures Introduction Tensegrity is a portmanteau of tensional integrity. Integrity of structures as being based in a synergy between balanced tension and compression components. The term 'tensegrity' was coined by Buckminster Fuller. steel structural systems Slide 3: Concept Tensegrity is the exhibited strength that results "when push and pull have a win-win relationship with each other". Tension is continuous and compression discontinuous, such that continuous pull is balanced by equivalently discontinuous pushing forces. Tensegrity is the name for a synergy between co-existing pairs of fundamental physical laws; of push and pull, and compression and tension, or repulsion and attraction. steel structural systems Slide 4: Benefits of tensegrity Tension stabilizes A compressive member loses stiffness as it is loaded, whereas a tensile member gains stiffness as it is loaded. Tensile member reduces its cross-section under load. Large stiffness-to-mass ratio can be achieved by increasing the use of tensile members. Tensegrity structures are efficient Tensegrity structures use longitudinal members arranged in very unusual (and non orthogonal) patterns to achieve strength with small mass. tensegrity systems become mass efficient because self-similar constructions replacing one tensegrity member by yet another tensegrity structure. steel structural systems Slide 5: Tensegrity structures can be reliably molded None of the individual members of the tensegrity structure experience bending moments. Members that experience deformation in two or three dimensions are much harder to model than members that experience deformation in only one dimension. Increased use of tensile members is expected to yield more robust models and more efficient structures. Tensegrity structures facilitate high precision control Structures that can be more precisely modeled can be more precisely controlled. The architecture (geometry) dictates the mathematical properties. Biology Biological structures such as muscles and bones, or rigid and elastic cell membranes, are made strong by the unison of tensioned and compressed parts. steel structural systems Slide 6: Amino acids of two types have formed hard ß- pleated sheets that can take compression, and thin strands that take tension. The ß- pleated sheets are discontinuous and the tension members form a continuous network. Seoul Olympic gymnastics hall – Example of Tensegrity structure Built – 1984 – 1986 . Location – Seoul, South Korea. Structural system – membrane structure tensegrity cable. Function / usage – stadium / arena. Architect – Soo-Geun Kim, Choon-Soo Ryu. Structural engineer – David Geiger. Construction material used – silicone coated glass fiber fabric. Height – 29.4m Span – 120m Membrane covered area – 11310 sq.m. Building area – 14016.8 sq.m. steel structural systems Slide 7: The Gymnastics Hall is the largest of the five stadiums in Seoul Olympic Park which were used as the main facility for the 1988 Olympic games. The gymnastics Hall developed a structural system that had never before been built: the world's first erected self-supporting "CABLE-DOME" fabric roof. The essential concept of the cable dome is making a continuous tension throughout the roof with tension cables and discontinuous compression posts. steel structural systems Slide 8: steel structural systems Seoul Olympic gymnastics hall Slide 9: steel structural systems Slide 10: steel structural systems Slide 11: steel structural systems Slide 12: 2. FLOATING ROOF STRUCTURE Introduction It consists of a double-deck-type roof, resting on the surface with a closure seal, or seals, to close the space between the roof edge. TYPES Single Deck Double Deck steel structural systems Slide 13: Single Deck Type A single deck type floating roof has an annular pontoon around the edge and a deck of single thickness in the center as seen in the diagram. The annular pontoon is divided into several chambers by radial bulkheads. steel structural systems Slide 14: Double Deck Type A double-deck type floating roof has two complete decks covering the entire surface. The roof is consisted of a portion divided by the ring and radial bulkheads into several compartments and a portion called the flexible bay. steel structural systems Slide 15: ADVANTAGES The careful stress analysis for the earthquake and wind. The strength of structure for the earthquake and wind shall be carefully analyzed by computer and also the structure shall be manufactured enough to endure all the stress. Hurricane proof building Pensacola Beach – Hurricane Proof House steel structural systems Slide 16: Navarre Beach - Round House steel structural systems Slide 17: BMW Welt Munich, Germany steel structural systems Slide 18: INTRODUCTION Designed by architects Coop Himmelb for BMW Group The facility was constructed from August 2003 through Summer 2007 steel structural systems Slide 19: CONCEPT Slide 20: ROOF STRUCTURE The roof is supported with the help of Double Cone of height of 43-foot-tall, hourglass shaped structure. This is not so difficult to organize by means of the computer The undulating roof is composed of two spatially distorted girder-grid layers, diagonal trusses, and vertical posts at selected points. The nearly 900 triangular pieces all have different profiles. And it is additionally supported with 11 columns. At 28 m high and with a maximum diameter of 45 m, it weighs in at a strapping total of 720 tons. The lower cone is covered with tempered glass with 8 mm thickness, 16 mm interstice and with semi-tempered glass. The upper cone glass sheets have the same dimensions steel structural systems Slide 21: A protection from solar beams made of drilled stainless steel panes, have been installed in front of some glass walls of the double cone, at a distance of 600 mm The building is sustainable through innovative climatic concepts which result in an estimated 30 percent energy savings. Designed with an 800 KW solar plant on its roof To achieve this effect, the designers conceived the enclosure of the event space as a framework shell made of horizontal rings, curved ascending profiles, and diagonals. All are steel tubes, rectangular in section. Slide 22: TELESCOPIC COLUMN FOLDED PLATES CANTILEVER TRUSSES 1 2 3 Slide 23: A telescopic cylindrical tube column in which a first tube is fitted into a second tube. Rollers integral with the first tube engage opposite edges of each of a plurality of openings parallel to the longitudinal axis of the column to interlock the tubes. The rollers are fixed to the first tube at points different from their axis of rotation to allow adjustment of the position thereof. TELESCOPIC COLUMN steel structural systems Slide 24: .Telescoping adjustable columns are also known as "teleposts," "sectional columns," "double-sectioned columns," "jack posts," or "jacks." They come in two or more hollow steel tube sections that are assembled on site. A smaller diameter tube is fitted into a larger diameter tube and the sections are held in place with steel supporting pins which pass through the pre-drilled holes of both tubes. Telescoping adjustable columns are regularly used in construction to adjust or level a structure before installing a permanent column. Or, they're used as temporary supports during the course of a building repair TELESCOPIC ADJUSTABLE COLUMN steel structural systems Slide 25: 1) Single piece columns –a single hollow steel tube with an adjusting screw at its end steel structural systems Slide 26: 2) Telescoping columns–two or more hollow steel tube sections that are assembled on site. The smaller diameter tube is fitted into the larger diameter tube and the sections are held in place with steel supporting pins that pass through the pre-drilled holes of both tubes. The tubes are less than 3-inch in diameter. The adjusting screw is assembled at the column’s smaller diameter end. steel structural systems Slide 27: A folded plate is an example of a 3-dimensional or space structure Folded plates consist of straight pieces joined with sharp edges. It cannot be made as thin as a shell due to the fact that it is subjected to bending. Folded plates can be seen as a space version of a rigid frame. Folded plates are best formed from reinforced concrete due to the fact that they can be easily cast. Folded plates can take the form of frames FOLDED PLATE steel structural systems Slide 28: GLANERBRUG CUSTOMS BUILDING,HOLLAND steel structural systems Slide 29: DEN HELDER STATION,HOLLAND steel structural systems Slide 30: CHURCH AT H O E N S B R O O K H E E R L E N steel structural systems Slide 31: Cantilevered trusses are trusses that extend beyond the bearing wall they are sitting on. In the example above, trusses extend past an exterior wall and out to a beam. In the first picture, the bearing wall is not utilized and the weight of the truss must be carried by the beam. In the second picture the bearing wall is utilized, therefore, the beam can be removed. This is yet another way your trusses can make life easier on the carpenter framing your house and saves money by eliminating a beam. CANTILEVER TRUSSES steel structural systems Slide 32: steel structural systems Slide 33: Steel Pyramid Cantileverd Truss The steel pyramid transfers the load from a hexagonal plan to a square base. The canopy of the roof is supported on 6 radial projecting trusses steel structural systems Slide 34: FIRTH OF ROAD ROAD steel structural systems 6. Space frame system : 6. Space frame system Skeletal three-dimensional pantographic frameworks consisting of pin-connected members are generally designated as Space Frames. Space frames usually utilize a multidirectional span, and are often used to accomplish long spans with few supports. They derive their strength from the inherent rigidity of the triangular frame; flexing loads (bending moments) are transmitted as tension an compression loads along the length of each strut. Most often their geometry is based on platonic solids . The simplest form is a horizontal slab of interlocking square pyramids built from aluminium or steel tubular struts. In many ways this looks like the horizontal jib of a tower crane repeated many times to make it wider. steel structural systems Slide 36: A stronger purer form is composed of interlocking tetrahedral pyramids in which all the struts have unit length. More technically this is referred to as an isotropic vector matrix or in a single unit width an octet truss. Space frames were independently developed by Alexander Graham Bell around 1900 and Buckminster Fuller in the 1950s. steel structural systems USAGE : USAGE Assembly of the Triodetic System requires only simple hand tools - local unskilled labor or contractors can efficiently build any architectural structure. All components are pre-fabricated, factory coated & supplied as a kit. Each item has a unique identifying mark & a single bolt completes the connection of all members at each node. Triodetic can provide full-time or part-time experienced supervision & guidance or complete project management if needed. steel structural systems Slide 38: Looking for a technology to fit this criteria the logical first choice was space frame systems since this technology epitomizes the idea of high performance structures made from small light modular components. Derived from an aluminum framing system for store displays, this system uses a unique integrated screw-driven clamp connector and modular panels to create the closest thing yet devised to a plug-in architecture platform. steel structural systems Configuration of space frame build systems: : Configuration of space frame build systems: Generally square inverted pyramid modules connected at the top and bottom layers provide the most commonly used Space Frame structures• Pipes, spherical node, cone, bolt and sleeve are the common components There are various types of connection nodes patented by various companies in the world. Two popular nodes are solid spherical nodes per Mero system Germany and hollow spherical node per Unibat. Large spans at lower height.• Freedom of design .• Eliminates requirement of mid-columns providing geometric stability .• Spacious. • High load-bearing capacity.• Functional aesthetics. • Light and structurally effective.• Column-free clear spans. • Random column placement.• Integral glazing / cladding.• Modularity. steel structural systems EXAMPLE OF SPACE FRAME SYSTEMS : EXAMPLE OF SPACE FRAME SYSTEMS the University Typology to the Skyscraper. The main structural system of the building is a space-frame structure derived in Paracloud. This structure serves as not only a means to realize the form, it serves to aid in the unification of the skyscraper as one entity with multiple uses housed within. Houston Drum discuss his recent project and the use of ParaCloud Modeler: steel structural systems Slide 41: Like much of the world, the United States is experiencing intense growth in and around its cities. As natural land gives way to strip malls and suburban housing, the environmental balance of exurban and countryside areas in America becomes increasingly uncertain. It is apparent the built environment continues to grow, and urban sprawl in Los Angeles is getting worse. As a consequence, land resources in Los Angeles are rapidly dwindling as more structures are realized. It comes a time when the skyscraper is evolving from its near universal perception as a device of economic speculation into the more established realization that it alone will permit us to achieve the urban densities needed to live sustainably on this planet. steel structural systems 4. Steel truss systemDescription : 4. Steel truss systemDescription These struss systems are used in the layout and fabrication of Alpine engineered light gauge steel roof and floor truss systems, mansard, parapet and canopy systems. Our structures range from commercial to high-end residential including educational, healthcare, industrial, hospitality, institutional, military and recreational buildings. steel structural systems Combination of standard S-60 truss items and L-50 ladder trussing. Modular stage depth in steps of about 4m (+ basic depth of 1m). 2 standard sizes : 16m and 20m (basis setups : 16x9 / 16x13 / 20x13 / 20x17m). Aluminium structure to be fitted on a Layher scaffolding floor system . Eye shaped truss system : Eye shaped truss system Young's moduli of regular two-dimensional truss-like and eye-shaped structures are simulated using the finite element method. The structures are idealizations of soft polymeric materials used in ferro-electret applications. In the simulations, the length scales of the smallest representative units are varied, which changes the dimensions of the cell walls in the structures. A power-law expression with a quadratic as the exponent term is proposed for the effective Young's moduli of the systems as a function of the solid volume fraction. The data are divided into three regions with respect to the volume fraction: low, intermediate and high. The parameters of the proposed power-law expression in each region are later represented as a function of the structural parameters, the unit-cell dimensions. steel structural systems Slide 44: The expression presented can be used to predict a structure/property relationship in materials with similar cellular structures. The contribution of the cell-wall thickness to the elastic properties becomes significant at concentrations >0.15. The cell-wall thickness is the most significant factor in predicting the effective Young's modulus of regular cellular structures at high volume fractions of solid. At lower concentrations of solid, the eye-shaped structure yields a lower Young's modulus than a truss-like structure with similar anisotropy. Comparison of the numerical results with those of experimental data for poly (propylene) show good agreement regarding the influence of cell-wall thickness on elastic properties of thin cellular films. steel structural systems Eye shaped truss system : Eye shaped truss system steel structural systems Advantages of truss system : Advantages of truss system Sturdy product withstands far more wind damage than wood trusses. Easy and fast to erect. Less dead load for the supporting structure. Require less lifting, handling and bracing than many other truss systems. Design flexibility. Create nearly any design you can imagine. Up to 80 feet long clear-span capabilities and ceiling and roof profiles without limit. Time-saving: Lightweight product allows for ground-assembly before raising the pre-built product into final position through use of a crane. Long-term protection against insects. No chemical treatment necessary for the life of the product. Lower costs for fire protection. Steel is 100% non-combustible by definition, and the fire resistance of steel does not "fade" like treated lumber. No need for attic sprinkling systems with UL fire rating. Compatibility tested with nearly all decking and roofing systems. steel structural systems Example of steel truss system : Example of steel truss system Built: 1920 Architect: George W. Hellmuth Building was aquired by the Carradine Hat Company in 1948. Added building next door in 1959. Thomas Jefferson BuildingBuilt: 1959. American Zinc, Lead and Smelting Company BuildingBuilt: 1967Architect: Hellmuth, Obata & Kassabaum. The building exemplifies the modernist aesthetic.Built with the seldom used Vierendeel truss system creating a rigid steel frame expressed in a stainless steel grid. steel structural systems Slide 48: steel structural systems Thomas Jefferson Building THANK YOU : THANK YOU steel structural systems You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.