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Along with this durability is also an increasing concern. Thus the solutions reached upon were steel structures with calculated detailing. Problems like building height, fire resistance, earth-quake resistance etc. could be dealt with in these constructions. The properties of steel like capacity to withstand high tension as well as compression helps us to use it in varied permutations and combinations. Slide 3: VARIOUS DETAILS OF STEEL CONSTRUSTION COMPONENTS SUBMITTED BY PRIYADARSHINI GHOSH ANUPRIYA SAXENA PANKHURI KHETAWAT AAYUSHI RASHMI Slide 4: SOME STEEL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS (column-beam details) Sketch of a medium sized steel framed building showing the main components. Steel sheds - A detail of a warehouse type building to illustrate some of the terms used. Portal column, Universal column "I" section Portal rafter, Universal beam "I" section Strut tie, pipe section Vertical wall bracing. equal angle section roof plane bracing. equal angle section "Z" section wall girt Cleat for girt. MS flat Overlap joint of two "Z" girts Outrigger supporting last fascia purlin, MS angle. Insulation blanket, double sided foil, supported on wire safety mesh. High tensile structural bolts connecting all members. Slide 6: SOME STEEL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS (cladding details) Section @ Vertical Joint This section shows two different conditions. The left side is cut through the spandrel panel. The steel structure is used to support the curtain wall at every floor slab. The bronze Tee-bar is bolted to the steel angles. The Tee bar is plug welded to the continuous bronze mullions. The right side of the detail shows the condition at the window. A muntz metal panel is used to cover the inside face of the curtain wall. In both cases, the spandrel panels and glass are held by extruded bronze frames. Isometric View This detail shows how the structural steel bracket and angles hold the bronze Tee-bar, and their relationship to the bronze mullion. Slide 7: Steel siding Detail of gable ends, one clad horizontally, which is by far the most common way, and the other is clad vertically to give architectural variety. Vertical Section – Horizontal Joint This section is cut through the vertical channel track to show the support bar that carries the copper panels. This system uses one stainless steel screw per panel to ensure panels are not lifted by wind. Isolation tape or a bituminous coating must be applied where the back of the copper panel contacts the channel track, to separate dissimilar metals. In addition, isolation clips are used between the support bars and the copper panels. Slide 8: SOME STEEL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS (roofing details) Gutter and blind roof clip detail. No fasteners exposed to the elements for extended performance. View of the copper roof project from above gables showing ridge and valley details. Slide 9: Hexagonal roof - Hexagonal roof - Apex detail using mild steel welded bracket. The cleats for the hips are offset of course, half the thickness of the hip. Slide 10: SOME STEEL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS (stair details) STAIR DETAIL HANDRAIL DETAIL GUARDRAIL DETAIL Slide 11: SOME STEEL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS (other applications) Building entrances Street furniture Interiors – stairs false ceiling cladding of pillars escalators false ceiling suspenders railing lighting lifts General application – functional cladding exterior walls rods ducts flooring (grid) landing for escalators thermal insulator water supply pipes roof trusses pool accessories Structural elements – joints fittings slides sculputures Slide 12: CASE STUDY OF STEEL STRUCTURES >BIRD'S NEST, BEIJING >HONGKONG BANK, HONGKONG >HOWRAH BRIDGE, KOLKATA >STANSTED AIRPORT, LONDON >DRESDEN RAILWAY TERMINAL, GERMANY SUBMITTED BY PRIYADARSHINI GHOSH ANUPRIYA SAXENA PANKHURI KHETAWAT AAYUSHI RASHMI Slide 13: THE BIRD’S NEST- BEIJING Located at the southern part of the Olympic Green in Beijing, the National Stadium was the main stadium of the 29th Olympiad in 2008. Occupying an area of 21 hectares, it has a floor space of 258,000 square meters. Its seating capacity amounts to 91,000, including 11,000 temporary seats. The venue hosted the opening and closing ceremonies of the Beijing Olympic Games and Paralympic Games, the track and field competitions, and the football finals. After the Olympics, the stadium became a large-scale sports and entertainment facility for the residents of Beijing -- an architectural landmark and Olympic legacy. Slide 14: SPECIAL FEATURES: The main body of the National Stadium has a design life of 100 years. Its fire resistance capability is first-rate, and it can withstand an eight-magnitude earthquake. The water-resistance capability of its underground project is also first-rate. ABOUT THE STURCTURE: The main body of the National Stadium is a colossal saddle-shaped elliptic steel structure weighing 42,000 tons. It is 333 meters long from north to south, 294 meters wide from east to west, and 69 meters tall. The main body's elements support each other and converge into a grid formation With a total length of 600 linear meters, the whole structure had four welding seams and 128 joints. Being a seven-story shear wall system, the stadium's stand has a concrete framework. The upper part of the stand and the stadium's steel structure are separated from each other, but both are based on a joint footing. The roof of the National Stadium is covered by a double-layer membrane structure, with a transparent ETFE membrane fixed on the upper part of the roofing structure and a translucent PTFE membrane fixed on its lower part. A PTFE acoustic ceiling is attached to the side walls of the inner ring. The fracture surface of the largest truss column -- the major load-bearing component of the roof structure -- measures 25m x 20m, with a height of 67m. The maximum weight of a single column is 500 tons. The main truss is 12m tall. The maximum span between and through the two columns amounts to 145.577+112.788m, and the maximum span between the two trusses stands at 102.39m. Because the structural elements in the project are box-typed, many elements intersect spatially among the steel parts. Besides, the complex nature of secondary structures has resulted in the diversity of nodal joints of the main structures, requiring accurate and sophisticated manufacturing and installation. A red concrete seating bowl and the outer steel frame around it, standing 50 feet apart. Twenty-four trussed columns encase the inner bowl, each one weighing 1,000 tons. consumed a total of 2,000kg of welding rods. Slide 15: WELDED JOINTS IN THE TRUSSES OUTER ENVELOPE : STEEL SPILL OUT SPACE IN BETWEEN Slide 16: THE HONGKONG BANK Located at 1 Queen’s Road, Hongkong, this building is the headquarters of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banks. It is basement( 3 stories deep) + 44 stories high, coming upto a height of 178.8m above the road level FACTS AND FIGURES: Foundation type – simple caisson foundation (34m below ground level) Slide 17: Structural steel – 27,000 tonnes Reinfocrement steel - 3,000 tonnes 6 million cm³ weld applied during erection of steel frame 102 circumferential passes were required mast can joint Slide 18: ELEMENTS OF SUPERSTRUCTURE: MASTS- EACH MAST COMPRISES 4 UBULAR STEEL COLUMNS INTRCONNECTED BY HAUNCHED RECTANGULAR BEAMS AT STORY HEIGHT INTERVALS OF 3.9M TO FORM AN OVERALL VIERENDEEL STRUCTURE. SUSPENSION TRUSSES AND HANGERS- THE TRUSS STRUCTURE CONSISTS OF RECTANGULAR ELEMENTS CONNECTED TO EACH OTHER AND TO THE MASTS BY PINS PASSING THROUGH END CLEVIS PLATES INTO LARGE SPHERICL BEARINGS LOCATED WITHIN THICK GUSSET PLATES. NORTH-SOUTH CROSS BRACING- RANGES FROM 2 TO 3 STOREY HIGH AS PER THE AREA NEEDED TO BE SUPPORTED. FLOOR STRUCTURE Slide 19: DETAILS: MAST DETAILS- P1- VIERENDEEL BEAM COLUMN SUB FRAME P2- SCRWED HANGER COUPLER P3- BEARING TRUSS CONNECTION P4- NORTH-SOUTH CROSS BRACING Slide 20: Structural cladding of the inner suspension truss Structural cladding of the outer suspension truss Slide 21: COMPONENTS OF CURTAIN WALLS: Slide 22: STRUCTURAL DETAIL OF GLAZED SOFFIT: Slide 23: FLOORING DETAIL: Slide 24: HOWRAH BRIDGE – KOLKATA A bridge that spans the Hooghly River in West Bengal, linking Howrah to its twin city, Kolkata. On 14 June 1965, it was renamed Rabindra Setu, however, it is still popularly known as Howrah Bridge. The bridge is one of the three on the Hooghly River and is a famous symbol of Kolkata. Apart from bearing the stormy weather of the Bay of Bengal region, it successfully bears the weight of a daily traffic of about 150,000 vehicles and 4 million human legs and thousands of cattle. Slide 25: FACTS AND FIGURES: Bridge type : suspension type balanced cantilever Bridge dimensions : 705m long & 30m wide Material : 26,500 MT of high tension steel Tower height : 82m Number of spans : 3 (99.1m, 457.5m, 99.1m) Daily traffic : 150,000 vehicles & 4 million pedestrians Bridge deck : 71ft with two footpaths of 15ft on either side The main tower is founded with single monoliths which are 55.31 x 24.8 m in plan with 21 chambers Monoliths at Calcutta and Howrah side are founded 31.41 m and 26.53 m in below ground level respectively. Joint System of Bridge (Expansion Joints) Longitudinal expansion and lateral sway movement of the deck are taken care of by expansion and articulation joints. There are two main expansion joints, one at each interface between the suspended span and the cantilever arms. There are expansion joints at the towers and at the interface of steel and concrete structures at both approach. Articulation Joints There are total 8 articulation joints. 3 at each of the cantilever arms. 2 in the suspended portions. Slide 26: Other features of the Bridge All members of the super structure comprise built up riveted sections with a combination of high tensile and mild steel Between towers bridge deck hangs from panel points in the lower chord of the main trusses with a series of hungers(39 pairs) Road way beyond the tower is supported on ground leaving anchor arm free from deck loads Bridge deck comprises 71 ft carriage way and 15 ft footway projecting either side of the trusses and braced by a longitudinal fascia girder. The deck system consists of cross girders hung between pairs of hungers with pinned connection. Six rows of longitudinal stringer girders span between cross girder. Floor joists supported transversely on top of stringers. They support a continuous pressed steel troughing system. Over which deck concrete is laid out. Camber and Traffic clearance Bridge deck has longitudinal ruling gradient of 1 in 40 from either end They are joined by a vertical curve of radius 4000 ft. Cross gradient of deck is 1 in 48 between kerbs and central 4.9mtr. is level to provide tramway housing channel in between troughing. Stansted Airport, UK : Stansted Airport, UK London Stansted Airport is a passenger airport located in the Uttlesford District of the English county of Essex is 48 km (30 mi) north-east of central London. It is 2.5 NM (4.6 km; 2.9 mi) north northeast of Bishop's Stortford and about 6 mi (9.7 km) outside Harlow. Stansted is a hub for a number of major European low-cost carriers. It is the third busiest airport in the United Kingdom and is the third largest airport serving the London area after Heathrow and Gatwick; and it is one of London's five international airports along with Luton and London City Airports. Stansted is owned and operated by BAA, which also owns and operates six other UK airports, including Heathrow and Gatwick, and is itself owned by an international consortium led by the Spanish Ferrovial Group. Slide 29: Designed by Foster and Parteners Steel frame structure Single storey linear terminal without Piers, 2 storey terminal with ditched satellite piers reached by light rail . Height: 12m Square in plan Designed for 15 million people Stansted infrastructure Stansted's high traffic levels are accommodated on a single 3,048m runway (05/23). It is one of seven UK airports owned by BAA, the company resulting from the privatisation of the British Airports Authority in 1987. BAA was bought by Spanish construction group Ferrovial in 2006, also owner of ground handler Swissport, which has a large Stansted presence. The airport is the third busiest in the UK and hosts 33 airlines serving over 165 destinations in 35 countries. Slide 30: Section , North -South Slide 31: Exploded Axonometric of Structural Module Structural Module – day lighting and artificial lighting needed to highlight routes and important areas Slide 32: Eave details These type of joints reduce Tectonic movements, similar joints are used in Stansted Airport : These type of joints reduce Tectonic movements, similar joints are used in Stansted Airport Exploded Axonometric of Wall panel : Exploded Axonometric of Wall panel Slide 35: Dresden Station Building, Germany Dresden's main railway terminus, completed in 1898 to a design by Ernst Giese and Paul Weidner, is one of the largest in Germany and one of the most impressive late-nineteenth-century railway stations anywhere in Europe. Linking Dresden with Berlin and Prague, the railway played a significant role in the citys industrial and economic growth in the first half of the twentieth century. During World War II, however, Dresden's station was severely damaged in Allied bombing raids. Wartime destruction was compounded in the post-war period by poor maintenance, so that the building finally reached a state where remedial conservation was required. The entire structure has now been restored to its original condition and sheathed in a translucent skin of Teflon-coated glass fibre. This new roof transmits 13 per cent of daylight and significantly reduces the stations reliance on artificial lighting. At night, light reflects off the underside of the canopy, creating an even wash of illumination throughout the station, while from outside the whole structure radiates an ethereal silvery glow. Slide 36: FACTS AND FIGURES: THE NORTH SOUTH ELEVATION IS 240 M LONG. THE EAST WEST ONE IS 122M LONG. THE CENTRAL HALL ARCHED TRUSS SPANS OVER 59M AND IS 32M HIGH.NORTH OR SOUTH HALL ARHED TRUSSES ARE 31M TO 32M IN SPAN AND 19MIN HEIGHT. 29,000M² OF MEMBRANE ROOFING. GLASS FIBRE FABRIC, TEFLON COATED HAS 67 SKYLIGHTS. Slide 37: the damaged late nineteenth century train shed with a lightweight fabric roof instead of reproducing the heavy timber and glass roof that had existed previously. This allowed a light touch to the repair of the steelwork, as well as providing 13% more natural light. However, it is the aesthetic effect that is chiefly remarkable, both for the fine quality of the diffused light through the white fabric roof and for its formal qualities. Instead of the parallel linear roofs and gutters of the original roof, the new fabric roof is pulled tightly down into the springing points of the arches in alternate bays, forming a fan vault somewhat reminiscent of that of King’s College Chapel. RIVETED JOINTS ARE USED. CABLE SUSPENDED FARIC STURCTURE IS USED. Slide 38: CONCLUSION: Many Problems like building height, fire resistance, earth-quake resistance etc. could be dealt with in these constructions. The properties of steel like capacity to withstand high tension as well as compression helps us to use it in varied permutations and combinations to produce state of the art structures with optimum utility. Though its use in India is less, adopting it would lead to large economic gains both in the long and short time period terms. BIBLIOGRAPHY: EDWARDS, BRIAN; the modern terminal Magazine: PROCESS ARCHITECTURE; FOSTER TOWER, HONGKONG. TRANSPORT SPACES, VOL.1, APICTORIAL REVIEW. E-REFERENCES: www.Greatbuildingsonline.com www.foster+partners.com www.wikipedia.com www.google.com You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.