VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE JHARKHAND : VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE JHARKHAND INSTITUTE NAME-
BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY(MESRA) Slide 2: The topic chosen here is the vernacular architecture of Jharkhand which is predominantly found around the area campus.The rich vernacular architecture which is also considered as the tribal architecture endeavours a great impact on the on goers which is pure in its form and untouched by the global influence. The tribal architecture of this region camouflages itself within nature to the greatest possible extent and seems to be a derivation from the soil rather than its modification to some alien concepts of habitation.Made by-Shramana Mandal New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts Slide 3: Local architecture Vernacular architecture of
Jharkhand New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts How do we associate the term ‘local’ in our reular terms? : How do we associate the term ‘local’ in our reular terms? The dictionary meaning of local is pertaining to or characterized by place or position in space; spatial, but local can be characterized in many forms and within many frames. The perspective of local can vary from the local in the sense of the small unit such as-
Or the term local be broaden in the terms of larger sense which cover a larger area such as-
Local non organization party
The term local can vary itself and it can also be used in the terms of
Of very big scale but still it can attach itself to a very small scale unit such as-
Here the term local is used in the form of local architecture in the form of vernacular architecture in the outskirts of the institute commonly where the santhal tribes of jharkhand reside.the architecture followed here reflect the agragian society of the tribe as well as the community. New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts Slide 5: Done by using traditional technologies.
Is built to meet specific needs, accommodating the values, economies, and ways of life of the cultures that produce them .
Each community over the years develops a prototype -responds to local needs and carries it forward through generations.
Is influenced by -different aspects of human behaviour and environment. What is vernacular architecture?
The word ‘vernacular’ derived from ‘vernaculus’ means native.
Hence vernacular architecture -‘native science of building’.
Vernacular architecture -categorise methods of construction which use locally available resources and traditions to address local needs. New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts Scope of study: : Scope of study: The analysis provides some recommendations for future design of houses in Jharkhand. Can help in designing an eco-friendly future.
Ancient Indian buildings use the environment, climate responsive design, and local and sustainable materials in their design and construction. These building forms embodied an important strategy of environmentally friendly homes: minimal use of energy. New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts Source-http://www.indianetzone.com/2/indian_tribal_art.htm Slide 7: Jharkhand is located on the eastern part of India.
The Santhals (tribals of chota nagpur plateau)-original inhabitants of the state.the traditional architecture of jharkhand is vernacular in the sense that it is a product of well tried local craftsmanship and use of local materials.the houses range from traditional jhopri(hutmet) to haveli(large mansion).
The hutments-originally kuccha(hindi for raw,unripe,incomplete) in nature built of mud,sticks,grass and pebbles. The beauty of kuccha architecture lies in its self
conscious attempts to adapt local materials as economically as possible to
encounter hostile environmental elements and to utilize beneficial ones. (Modified from:
ap.svg/530px-India_Jharkhand_locator_map.svg.png) New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts Slide 8: The local huts predominantly has two different styles of vernacular houses:
The huts provide shelter to very low-income families.
Huts made of mud walls and thatched roofs were the standard construction.
Brick bat coba and lime mortar were the key materials used for constructing highthermal-
Adequate ventilation is significant in creating conditions that are comfortable. Courtyards
and other exterior spaces form an integral part of these houses. SOURCE-Krex.kstate.edu/…/990/1/AvinashGautam2008.pdf New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts Source-http://www.indianetzone.com/2/indian_tribal_art.htm Typical hut construction. (Reproduced from Dhar, 1992) : Typical hut construction. (Reproduced from Dhar, 1992) SOURCE-Krex.kstate.edu/…/990/1/AvinashGautam2008.pdf New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts Typical plan of a hut in Jharkhand. (Reproduced from Dhar, 1992) : Typical plan of a hut in Jharkhand. (Reproduced from Dhar, 1992) New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts How the huts were made? : How the huts were made? The huts- made of local materials. Timber, bamboo, clay, straw,
cow dung, and a special variety of grass.
The walls-made of a special type of mud obtained by souring earth by
adding vegetable waste and leaving it to mature . The decaying waste
produced tannic acid and other organic colloids,improving the mud’s plasticity.
This mud was then mixed with cow dung, chopped straw, and gravel or stones to
make the raw material for the walls.
The walls were formed by applying a thick coat of the mixture on both sides of
bamboo mesh that wrapped around the posts .
The walls were approximately 450 mm (18 inches) thick and bulky (Dhar, 1992). Special mud blocks left with vegetable waste matter to mature for wall construction. New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts ROOFING STRUCTUREThe roof- rested on nine wooden posts erected in three rows, with three posts perrow, as shown in Figure. These posts were sunk into the raised platform and tied with wooden beams and purlins that supported the roof structure. The huts usually had a gabled thatch roof. Bamboo sticks formed the mullions to support the thatch. PURPOSE OF THE THATCH ROOFThe thick thatch used as roofing material prevented rain from entering the houseand at the same time provided insulation to the building. While providing some benefits to the house, thatch had its own drawbacks. It tended to house parasites, rodents, and birds. : ROOFING STRUCTUREThe roof- rested on nine wooden posts erected in three rows, with three posts perrow, as shown in Figure. These posts were sunk into the raised platform and tied with wooden beams and purlins that supported the roof structure. The huts usually had a gabled thatch roof. Bamboo sticks formed the mullions to support the thatch. PURPOSE OF THE THATCH ROOFThe thick thatch used as roofing material prevented rain from entering the houseand at the same time provided insulation to the building. While providing some benefits to the house, thatch had its own drawbacks. It tended to house parasites, rodents, and birds. SOURCE-Krex.kstate.edu/…
/990/1/AvinashGautam2008.pdf Bamboo stick(supports the thatch) New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts Structure of the huts: : Structure of the huts: An average hut- approximately 5 to 6 meters (15 to 18 feet) long and 3 to 4 meters (10 to 12 feet) wide.
Arranged in a linear pattern along the main street of a village.
Normally surrounded by a fence made of bamboo, shrubs, or twigs that defined the boundary between the public street and the semi-public courtyard area in front and at the rear of the hut.
Often there was a well in this courtyard that served as the source for water for drinking, bathing, washing, and cooking. The house sat on a raised platform made of compacted earth. The high thermal
mass helped keep the house cool in the evenings in summer which made it pleasant for
people to rest in the evenings. The huts normally had minimal fenestration. Often the
only opening on the external walls was the main door. Some houses had windows, but
they were small and placed high to ventilate the indoors while, at the same time, acting as
a visual barrier for the private spaces. The small windows also served to keep the hot
summer sun and cold winter winds out. New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts Slide 14: The hutments were originally built of mud, sticks, grass, an pebbles.
Their modest beauty lies in being less influenced by self-conscious decorative attempts than from pure, practical shapes produced by adapting local material as economically as possible to mitigate hostile environmental elements and to use beneficial ones. Source-http://sanskritihazaribagh.blogspot.com/
The conception of space in the hutments began with a single cell shelter. This single cell was
then either divided to create different space, or several single cells were added to create a
The primary element was a single interior living space, which may have been sub-divided,
multiplied, or otherwise modified. Second, an external space adjacent to or surrounded
By the dwelling was emphasized by use of elements such as low platforms or verandahs. SOURCE-Krex.kstate.edu/…
/990/1/AvinashGautam2008.pdf New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts Slide 15: The wall paintings known as Khovar and Sohrai, is something really unqiue.
khovar in certain tribal languages refers to the bridal room or the home of the bride. And that is how these paintings done outside homes by women during weddings came to be known as Khovar painting
Khovar-art practiced during the summer marriage season.
Sohrai- is the harvest festival during the onset of winter in which a specific art takes place in praise of the cattle and the Lord of Animals.
Usually made before Diwali or during a wedding session .
The village mural painting tradition- matriarchal one . It is full of plant forms and fertility symbols-related to the catholic mandalas in the rock art. The godna or tattoo motifs are found in the prehistoric rock art made by the women of the malabar tribe(Godnakari)-the metal casters,symbolizing a protective emblem. The highlight of khovar art-the painted walls of the houses to welcome the bridegroom-compared to Indra on an elephant with decorations of the wild animals of the companies and plants symbolizes fertility.
http://www.marcusleatherdale.com/images/jharkhand/fullsize/jharkhand_07_fs.jpg) Khovar paintings(wall paintings) New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts The main intent of the design - to abide by tradition, fulfill the user’needs, and maintain a group identity by resembling the rest of the community. Slide 16: Besides the tribals, agrarian communities such as the Ganju and the Kurmi and artisans like the Prajapatis and Kumhars also do these paintings. The subjects are simple — mostly jungle plants and animals — but the style and techniques are fascinating.
After a wall is plastered with mud, a coat of black earth or kalimitti is applied on it and left to dry. Once dried, it is covered with either white or yellow mud coat, whatever is available locally.
Before the upper coat is dry, it is scrapped by a small piece of broken comb. Some just use their fingers instead of a comb. The scratching reveals a black undercoat, depicting patterns and designs.
Sohrai paintings- are done during the same festivals, but their emphasis is on worshipping of cows, which symbolises agriculture. These paintings also depict figures and forms of plant, fish, bird and animal, particularly cows and horses.
Red, black and white are popular, as they stand out starkly against a freshly painted wall. A dantun or a crushed twig is mostly used to paint these figures. SOURCE- www.telegraphindia.com/1070910/asp/jharkahnd/story_8297628.asp New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts Slide 17: Case study House 1 (hut)
The house is next to the main downtown road in the center of the town .
The walls are in good shape; however, the roof appears to need some maintenance.
The house has two living spaces, a kitchen, a toilet, a study, two storage areas, and a verandah on the east and south sides.
The primary entry door opens to the family room from the verandah on the south side of the house.
The house also has two windows on the north side.
The ceiling of the living space is 4 meters high.
The unglazed windows of the living room (1.2x1.2 meters) have wooden shutters which remained open during the visit, but the doors were closed, and there was very little movement of air inside the house .
Adobe bricks and lime mortar were used to construct walls and exterior columns,
all of which are approximately 0.6 meters thick.
The floor and walls are finished with lime plaster.
The roof is made of burnt clay tiles laid over wooden rafters.
An intermediate ceiling lies below the roof and is made of mud tiles laid over wooden rafters
and plastered with lime. Photograph of Sita devi whose house was taken for case study. Photograph of the beautifully carved door of the house New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts Site Plan of house 1. : Site Plan of house 1. View of house 1. New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts Slide 19: The huts validate the use of attic space not only as a storage space but by acting as
a barrier between the hot summer sun and the living space. Attic space helps reduce the
temperature of the ceiling of the living zone in summer; however, this can act as a
constraint in winter when the heat from the sun is desirable to heat the ceiling. Hence, a
right balance in the provision of attic space is crucial for creation of comfort condition
year round. Attic space used as storage area. SOURCE-Krex.kstate.edu/…/990/1/AvinashGautam2008.pdf New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts How does vernacular architecture controlled the climatic changes? : How does vernacular architecture controlled the climatic changes? Vitruvius in his Book VI of “Ten Books on Architecture” explains the
fundamental relationships among climate, comfort, and architecture using the ‘tri-partite model of environment’.
He states that the comfort, climate, and architecture are all closely linked to each other and architecture can create comfortable spaces in uncomfortable climatic conditions.
Strategies that work with the climate rather than against it have always existed in vernacular buildings. In vernacular homes ,mechanical systems work with passive design strategies to control the climate inside the house to make it comfortable.
These strategies keep the building warm in cold regions, cold in hot seasons, keeping water from destroying the building in water rich or uncontrolled areas, allowing cool winds to cool buildings in hot humid areas among other strategies depending on the climate. New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts Scope of improvement: : Scope of improvement: The house under investigation could be improved by-
proper sanitation facilities, modern electrical features, and pest control.
The huts lack basic toilet facilities ,so equipping them with sanitary fixtures will help improve the standard of life of the occupants.
Both types of houses lack pest control, which means the doors and windows
remain closed during the night. Providing occupants with nets will allow the windows to remain open, allowing cool winds to circulate in the house at night and reduce nighttime internal temperature in summer.
Lighting inside the huts is poor, so providing electricity will enhance occupants’ quality of life.
Community participation in planning and development, coupled with concessions from governmental agencies like exemptions on income tax, estate duty, property tax, gift tax, and wealth tax to people who contribute
to restoring these buildings, will help revive vernacular architecture.
Finally, educating current and future generations about their rich architectural heritage will help preserve these building types. New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts Slide 22: Bibliography Bandopadhyay, A., & Merchant, A. N. (2006). Space syntax analysis of colonial
houses in India.
2. Das, N. (2006). Courtyards houses of Kolkata: Bioclimatic, typological and
3. Das, P., & Pushplata. (2005). Tribal architecture of Hazaribagh. Paper presented
at the International Conference on Art and Architecture of East India and Bangladesh,
Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, India. Retrieved from http://www.prashantdas.
4. Dhar, S. (1992). Regulating privacy: A comparison of the garo and santal
cultures using the human relations area files. Unpublished Masters of Architecture,
Kansas State University, Manhattan.
5. Meir, I. A., & Roaf, S. C. (2006). The future of the vernacular: Towards new
methodologies for the understanding and optimization of the performance of vernacular buildings. 6. Defining vernacular architecturRapoport, A. (1990). Defining vernacular architecture. In M. Turan (Ed.),Ethnoscapes: Vol. 4. Vernacular architecture: Paradigms of environmental response (pp.67-101). Hampshire: Gower Publishing Group.
7. Reddy, P. R., & Lefebvre, B. (1993). Rural housing and perception of inhabitants:
Case study of an Indian village. International Journal for Housing Science and its
Applications,17(1),49-55. 8. Hassan, F. (1986). Natural energy and vernacular architecture: Principles and
examples with reference to hot arid climates. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. New world trophy.Local…Jharkhand huts