THE PRESSURE ZINC DIE CASTING PROCESS: MATERIALS

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Pressure die casting with zinc-based alloys is one of the most efficient and versatile high-production methods used for the manufacturing of strong, accurate, complex and intricately shaped metal components. Visit @ https://www.dynacast.com.sg/

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THE HIGH PRESSURE ZINC DIE CASTING PROCESS: MATERIALS www.dynacast.com Zn

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2 Zn Pressure die casting with zinc-based alloys is one of the most effcient and versatile high-production methods used for the manufacturing of strong accurate complex and intricately shaped metal components. The process is carried out in an automatic machine suitable to withstand high pressure. The molten metal is pushed by a hydraulically actuated plunger into a two- piece steel die containing one or more cavities each an exact inverse replica of the part or parts being produced. Because of the quick chill and rapid solidifcation that takes place when molten metal comes in contact with the relatively cool steel side and because the fne metallurgical grain structure that results the mechanical properties of pressure die castings are generally superior to castings produced by other methods. Zinc pressure die castings for example are stronger than sand cast 356-T6 aluminum SAE 40 bronze and class 30 cast iron. Also pressure die cast components produced using the ZA alloys are stronger than pressure die cast aluminum 380 alloy. ZAMAK ALLOYS The name “ZAMAK” is an acronym from the German words that make up the alloys main ingredients: Z zinc A aluminum M magnesium and K copper. When the alloys were developed in the 1920s the frst useable material was designated Zamak 1. With each subsequent iteration the designations increased sequentially 1-2-3-4-5- 6-7 only the most desirable alloys 2-3-5-7 remain in use presently. The name ZAMAK is an acronym from the German words that make up the alloys main ingredients... DYNACAST | THE HIGH PRESSURE ZINC DIE CASTING PROCESS: MATERIALS

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3 Zamak 2 has the highest strength and hardness in the 4 zinc aluminum alloy family. ZAMAK 2 Zamak 2 a predecessor of the more widely used Zamak 3 has the highest strength and hardness in the 4 zinc aluminum Zamak alloy family. Because of its relatively high copper content 3 it is approx. 25 stronger as cast than Zamak 3 and almost 10 stronger than Zamak 5 with higher hardness than both. The high copper content however results in property changes upon long term aging. These changes include slight dimensional growth .0014in/in after 20yrs lower elongation and reduced impact performance to levels similar to aluminum alloys for die cast products. It does however provide some interesting characteristics which may assist designers. Its creep performance is rated higher than the other Zamaks and 2 maintains higher tensile strength and hardness levels after long term aging. Also preliminary investigations suggest 2 is a good bearing material and may eliminate bushings and wear inserts in die designs. But it does give up impact strength and because of this limitation Zamak 2 is only used when the strength or hardness of Zamak 3 or 5 are not suffcient for long-term end use. Zamak 2 is sometimes referred to as Kirksite and is the only alloy used for gravity casting – mainly for metal forming dies or plastic injection molds. ZAMAK 3 Of all the zinc casting alloys Zamak 3 is the most widely used accounting for approx. 85 of all zinc casting tonnage worldwide. It has the base composition for all the Zamak alloys 96 zinc 4 aluminum. Its superb physical and mechanical properties excellent castability and long term dimensional stability provide the basis for its broad usage. The ease it can be electroplated adds to the popularity of this alloy with excellent fnishing characteristics for plating painting and chromate treatments. It is the “standard” by which other zinc alloys are rated in terms of die casting and is therefore the most widely available alloy for die casting sources. DYNACAST | THE HIGH PRESSURE ZINC DIE CASTING PROCESS: MATERIALS

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4 ZA 8 is the most creep resistant and strongest and hardest in the ZAMAK family. ZAMAK 5 Most often through casting design procedures a Zamak 3 pressure die casting can be made to meet service or functional requirements. When this is not the case especially where strength is concerned Zamak 5 is the next choice. Except for a nominal 1 copper addition the chemistry of Zamak 5 is comparable to that of Zamak 3. The composition modi cation results in higher tensile strength and increased hardness but sacri ces elongation. Zamak 5 has signi cantly better creep resistance than the other alloys in the conventional group. Zamak 5 is not as ductile as some of the other alloys a factor to consider when post casting operations such as secondary bending riveting swaging or crimping are required. Because of 3’s wide availability material speci ers often strength components by design modi cation rather than Zamak 5. However when an extra measure of tensile performance is needed Zamak 5 castings are recommended. The alloy is readily plated nished and machined and is comparable to Zamak 3. ZAMAK 7 The last of the original Zamak’s 7 alloy is a modi cation of 3 alloy in which lower magnesium content is speci ed in order to increase fluidity. To avoid issues with the inter- granular corrosion lower levels of impurities are called for and a small amount of nickel is speci ed. Alloy 7 has slightly better ductility than 3 with the other properties remaining the same. The alloy is therefore popular for those special cases where the die caster is making thin walled components requiring a good surface nish. However research testing has shown metal and die temperatures have a much larger effect than changing alloys. Close attention to control of the die casting process parameters is important to eliminate defects and achieve consistent quality. ZA 8 Of all the zinc alloys which can be cast in hot-chamber machines ZA-8 is the most creep resistant 3 times that of Zamak 3 and is the strongest and hardest in the Zamak family with the exception of Zamak 2 which is very similar in performance. It is used principally in structural or highly stressed applications. In spite of its relatively high aluminum content it can be electroplated using conventional plating techniques and nished using standard procedures for Zamaks. When the performance of alloys 3 and 5 are in question ZA 8 is often the die casting choice because of high strength and creep properties because of its ef cient hot-chamber castability. DYNACAST | THE HIGH PRESSURE ZINC DIE CASTING PROCESS: MATERIALS

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5 EZAC has excellent fuidity and a low casting temperature. ACuZinc 5 ACuZinc is another zinc alloy developed by General Motors Research Development engineering department. At the outset ACuZinc alloys were limited to production of GM speci ed parts. More recently however the GM licensing agreement has allowed for a broader scope of applications. With the addition of a higher percentage of copper ACuZinc alloys were developed to improve the wear resistance and creep properties in the zinc alloy family. There are two ACuZinc alloys: ACuZinc 5 5 copper and ACuZinc 10 10 copper which are used in a variety of automotive applications. ACuZinc 5 is hot-chamber cast and ACuZinc 10 is cold-chamber cast. When casting ACuZinc 5 it is best practice to keep a mixer running constantly in the melting pot. This keeps the copper from separating and clogging the shot end components. EZAC EZAC TM is Eastern Alloys new high strength creep resistant hot-chamber zinc based die casting alloy. With excellent fluidity and a low casting temperature 780-825F EZAC is perfect for the hot-chamber die casting process. In addition because of EZAC‘s low melting temperature it does not have the same casting dif culties such as erosion and wear that other similar high strength die casting alloys exhibit. Casting trials have shown negligible component wear in EZAC compared to the other high strength hot- chamber zinc die casting alloys. DYNACAST | THE HIGH PRESSURE ZINC DIE CASTING PROCESS: MATERIALS

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6 ZINC PROPERTIES Alloy Tensile Strength Yield Strength 0.2 Impact Strength Shear Strength Elongation Density PSI x 10 3 PSI x 10 3 ft. lb. PSI x 10 3 in 50mm lb/in 3 Zamak 2 52 41 35 46 7 .24 Zamak 3 41 32 43 31 10 .24 Zamak 5 48 33 48 38 7 .24 Zamak 7 41 32 43 31 13 .24 ZA 8 54 42 31 40 6 .227 ACuZinc5 59 49 – 40 5 .247 EZAC 60 57 2 – 6.7 – Mechanical Physical DYNACAST | THE HIGH PRESSURE ZINC DIE CASTING PROCESS: MATERIALS

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Dynacast works with organizations all over the world helping bring their ideas to life with the highest quality die cast components on the planet. Customers can come from virtually any industry—consumer electronics automotive healthcare or any other where only the very best is good enough. And each benefts from our 80+ years of experience pioneering the techniques and technologies that have redefned the industry. It means that every customer receives insight and expertise that adds value at every stage of the design and die cast manufacturing process. It’s why today across multiple industries and multiple geographies Dynacast is the name synonymous with precision engineered metal components. Please visit dynacast.com to learn more. www.dynacast.com

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