line follower robot

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TOPICS TO BE DISCUSSED Introduction to microcotroller . Introduction to embedded system. Introduction to robotics. Minor Components employed in the circuit. Brief Description Of Major Components Used in our Project. Circuit diagram of Line Follower Robot. Programming Of Microcontroller used. Working Of Line Follower Robot . View to the project.

Introduction To Microcontroller. :

Introduction To Microcontroller. A microcotroller is a small computer on a single integrated circuit consisting intially of a relative simple CPU, clock , timers , I/O ports and memory. Microcontrollers are basically sequential machines because their operations depends on their circuit status and its inputs. Some of the microcontrollers are: 8031,8051,8052.

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Here are some examples: If your clock radio goes off,and you hit the SNOOZE button a few times in the morning,the first thing you do in your day is interact with a microcontroller. Heating up some food in the microwave oven and making a call on a cell phone also involves operating microcontrollers. We will be discussing about microcontroller 8051 in the further slides.

Introduction To Embedded System.:

Introduction To Embedded System. An embedded system or an electronic system which is designed for a single dedicated task and it will repeat that particular task again and again. Example: Digital watches, microwave oven, washing machine, ac remote control. Computer is a set of embedded system since it is a multi-task system.

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Embedded system consists of a microcontroller or embedded processor which uses artificial intelligence in a form of a programming code and some other peripheral devices. Application : 1)Automation. 2)Accuracy. 3)Reduction in size.

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The Embedded System Design requirements are: 1) Real Time. 2) Small size, low weight. 3) Low power. 4) Safe and reliable. Example of embedded system.

Introduction To Robotics.:

Introduction To Robotics. ROBOTICS = Robota + TICS Robota = Servant/slave Tics = Technologies related to robots.

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Robotics is the engineering science and technology of robots, and their design, manufacture , application and structural disposition. Robotics is related to electronics , machines and softwares .

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Robot is a programmed ,autonomous device ,made up of electrical or mechanical units, that can move around and do a variety of tasks in place of humans – this could be as a time-saving measure or because the tasks are too repetitive and tedious or too dangerous. An automatic device that performs functions normally ascribed to humans or a machine in the form of a human.

Minor Components Employed in The Circuit.:

Minor Components Employed in The Circuit. Resistors. Variable Resistors( Potentiometer). Capacitors. Crystal Oscillator. Voltage Regulator. LED. IR LED. Photo diode.


Resistor. The resistor's function is to reduce the flow of electric current. Resistance value is designated in units called the "Ohm." A 1000 Ohm resistor is typically shown as 1K-Ohm (kilo Ohm), and 1000 K-Ohms is written as 1M-Ohm (mega ohm).   There are two classes of resistors; fixed resistors and the variable resistors. They are also classified according to the material from which they are made. The typical resistor is made of either carbon film or metal film.

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Resistor. Pull-up resistor. This symbol is used to indicate a resistor in a circuit diagram, known as a schematic.

Variable Resistors.:

Variable Resistors. There are two general ways in which variable resistors are used. One is the variable resistor which value is easily changed. These are called "Potentiometers“ . This symbol is used to indicate a variable resistor in a circuit diagram.

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Variable Resistor. Hand made diagram left


Capacitors.  The capacitor's function is to store electricity, or electrical energy. The capacitor also functions as a filter, passing alternating current (AC), and blocking direct current (DC). The capacitor is constructed with two electrode plates facing each other, but separated by an insulator.   The value of a capacitor (the capacitance), is designated in units called the Farad (F). This symbol is used to indicate a capacitor in a circuit diagram.

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Electrolytic Capacitor. Ceramic Disc Capacitor.

Crystal Oscillator.:

Crystal Oscillator. A crystal oscillator is an electronic circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches), to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters/receivers.  

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Symbol Of Crystal Oscillator. Crystal Oscillator.

Voltage Regulator.:

Voltage Regulator. A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level.  The 78XX series of three-terminal positive regulator are available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output voltages, making them useful in a wide range of applications.

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Voltage Regulator Pin 1 : Input. Pin 2 : Ground. Pin 3 : Output.


L.E.D. A light-emitting diode, usually called an LED. It is a semiconductor diode that emits incoherent narrow-spectrum light when electrically biased in the forward direction of the p-n junction, as in the common LED circuit.

Infrared L.E.D.:

Infrared L.E.D. Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of microwaves. Infrared radiation has wavelengths between about 750 nm and 1 mm, spanning five orders of magnitude. FEATURES Of IR L.E.D. Wavelength= 940 nm Chip material = GaAs with AlGaAs window High Output Power Package material and color: Clear, untinted , plastic    

Photo Diode.:

Photo Diode. A photodiode is a type of photo detector capable of converting light into either current or voltage, depending upon the mode of operation. Photodiodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed (to detect vacuum UV or X-rays ) or packaged with a window or optical fiber connection to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device. A photodiode is designed to operate in reverse bias .

Brief Description Of Major Component Used In Our Project. :

Brief Description Of Major Component Used In Our Project. Microcontroller 8051. Motor Driver IC ULN2003. Op-Amp LM358. Lithium Ion Battery. DC motor. PCB. Solder.

Microprocessor 8051:

Microprocessor 8051 The Intel 8051 is a single chip microcontroller (µC) which was developed by Intel in 1980 for use in embedded systems. Some Important features and applications: 1.It provides many functions (CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O, interrupt logic, timer, etc.) in a single package 2. 8-bit data bus - It can access 8 bits of data in one operation (hence it is an 8-bit microcontroller)   3.16-bit address bus - It can access 216 memory locations - 64 kB each of RAM and ROM   4.On-chip RAM - 128 bytes ("Data Memory")   5.On-chip ROM - 4 kB ("Program Memory")   6.Four byte bi-directional input/output port 7. Power saving mode

Brief Description Of IC ULN2003:

Brief Description Of IC ULN2003 ULN2003 is a 16-pin IC. It is used to connect motors and has various more applications. It gets input from microcontroller 8051’s pin number : 21,22,23,24.Input is received at pin number :1,2,3,4 of ULN2003. Connection is done with a resistor between them. Connections: Microcontroller 8051 ULN 2003 Pin 21 Pin 1 Pin 22 Pin 2 Pin 23 Pin 3 Pin 24 Pin 4

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H-bridge is a bi-directional motor driver IC which means it can connect only two motors. Whereas in case of ULN2003 we can connect more than two motors in the same side of the IC. The motors are connected in the pin numbers: 16,15,14,13 of ULN2003.

Op-Amp LM358:

Op-Amp LM358 Pinout Diagram

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Figure shows the representation of a DC motor. If we apply Vcc to A and   gnd to B then motor will rotate in clockwise direction(assume the direction   as clockwise). If we apply Vcc to B and gnd to A then motor will rotate in   anticlockwise direction. If we apply gnd to A and B then motor will stop ,   but some movement is there due to inertia. If you apply Vcc to both A and   B then motor will break suddenly , only very small movement due to   inertia. That is why if A,B= Vcc it is called breaking. Here Vcc refers to the   voltage applied to the motor and it should not be greater than maximum   voltage rating of motor. We normally apply 12V to the motor, Vcc =12V.  

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A B Motion 0 0 stop vcc 0 clockwise 0 vcc anti-clockwise vcc vcc brake

Lithium Ion Battery.:

Lithium Ion Battery. Lithium-ion batteries (sometimes abbreviated Li-ion batteries) are a type of rechargeable battery in which a lithium ion moves between the anode and cathode. The lithium ion moves from the anode to the cathode during discharge and from the cathode to the anode when charging.

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Lithium ion batteries are not to be confused with lithium batteries, the key difference being that lithium batteries have a metallic lithium anode and lithium ion batteries have an anode material into which lithium inserts.

DC motor.:

DC motor. An electric motor uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy. A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power.

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Operation: If an Electric current flows through two copper wires that are between the poles of a magnet, an upward force will move one wire up and a downward force will move the other wire down.   The loop can be made to spin by fixing a half circle of copper which is known as commutator , to each end of the loop. Current is passed into and out of the loop by brushes that press onto the strips. The brushes do not go round so the wire does not get twisted. This arrangement also makes sure that the current always passes down on the right and back on the left so that the rotation continues.


PCB. PCB stands for Printed Circuit Board. A PCB, is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components. PCBs are rugged, inexpensive, and can be highly reliable.

Printed Circuit Board.:

Printed Circuit Board.


Solder. A solder is a fusible metal alloy, with a melting point or melting range of 180 to 190 °C (360 to 370 °F), which is melted to join metallic surfaces, especially in the fields of electronics and plumbing, in a process called soldering.   Tin/lead solders are commercially available.

Soldering Iron.:

Soldering Iron. A soldering iron is a device for applying heat to melt solder for attaching two metal parts.   A soldering iron is composed of a heated metal tip and an insulated handle. Heating is often achieved electrically, by passing a current, supplied through an electrical cord or a battery, through a heating element. For electrical work, wires are usually soldered to printed circuit boards, other wires, or small terminals.

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Small battery-operated or gas soldering irons are useful when there isn’t a convenient source of electricity. The photograph below is of electrically operated soldering machine. 

Circuit Diagram Of Line Follower Robot.:

Circuit Diagram Of Line Follower Robot.

Programming of Microcontroller:

Programming of Microcontroller #include<at89x51.h> void main() { while(1) { if(P1_1==0 && P1_0==0) { P2_0=0; P2_1=0; } if(P1_1==0 && P1_0==1) { P2_0=1; P2_1=0; } if(P1_1==1 && P1_0==0) { P2_0=0; P2_1=1; } if(P1_1==1 && P1_0==1) { P2_0=1; P2_1=1; } } }

Working Of Line Follower Robot:

Working Of Line Follower Robot What is line follower robot ????? ANY GUESSES…..????

What is line follower robot ??:

What is line follower robot ?? The line follower robot constructed, have the characteristics of moving over a continuous white line marked over black surface or continuous black line marked over white surface, the robot is able to move over that line continuously.

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The line follower robot constructed, have the characteristics of moving over a continuous white line marked over black surface or continuous black line marked over white surface, the robot is able to move over that line continuously. It is also having feature of auto shut down, if the line is not found for a assigned period of time, the robot will stop moving automatically.  

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The line follower robot constructed, have the characteristics of moving over a continuous white line marked over black surface or continuous black line marked over white surface, the robot is able to move over that line continuously. It is also having feature of auto shut down, if the line is not found for a assigned period of time, the robot will stop moving automatically.   Note:The line used (either of black or white colors) must be at least one cm wide and should not be uneven or should not bend at an angle greater that 70’.


Working The line following characteristics is provided to the robot with the use of infrared light, a IR LED emits infrared light and a photodiode placed next to it receives infrared light which is reflected back from the surface, thus can differentiate in black and white colours (white will reflect all the infrared light while black surface will absorb the complete infrared light). The output from photo diode is fed to the op-amp LM358 (used as a comparator), which compares this voltage to a fixed voltage and amplifies the differential voltage to the give output in digital form, this output from op-amp is fed to the pins P1.0 and P1.1 of Port1 of the microcontroller 8051, which performs the programmed actions on the basis of these inputs.   The output from the microcontroller is taken from P2.6 and P2.7 pins of Port2 of microcontroller, these outputs are fed to 1 and 2 pins of motor driver IC ULN2003, which amplifies this voltage and gives the output to DC motors running under its control.

Main Board.:

Main Board.

IR Sensor.:

IR Sensor.

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IR sensor is one of the most basic and popular modules. In electronics, this sensor is analogous to human’s visionary senses which can be used to detect an obstacle which is one of its common applications. In  robotics , a group of such modules are used so that a robot can follow a line pattern.


Description The IR Sensor-Single is a general purpose proximity sensor. Here we use it for collision detection. The module consist of a IR emitter and IR receiver pair. The high precision IR receiver always detects a IR signal. The module consists of 358 comparator IC. The output of sensor is high whenever it IR frequency and low otherwise. LED indicator helps user to check status of the sensor without using any additional hardware. The power consumption of this module is low. It gives a digital output.

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The transmitter part of the sensor project is an  Infrared (IR) Led  which transmits continuous IR rays to be received by an IR receiver. The output of the receiver varies depending upon its reception of IR rays. Since this variation cannot be analyzed as such, therefore this output can be fed to a comparator. Here operational amplifier (op-amp) of  LM 358  is used as comparator. When the IR receiver does not receive signal the potential at the inverting input goes higher than that that at non-inverting input of the comparator (LM 358). Thus the output of the comparator goes low and the  LED  does not glow .When the IR receiver receives signal the potential at the inverting input goes low. Thus the output of the comparator (LM 358) goes high and the LED starts glowing.  Resistor  R1 (100 ), R2 (10k ) and R3 (330  ) are used to ensure that minimum 10 mA current passes through the IR LED, photodiode and normal LED, respectively. Resistor VR2 (preset=5k ) is used to adjust the output. Resistor VR1 (preset=10k ) is used to set the sensitivity of the circuit.

View To The Project.:

View To The Project.

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