Osmotic Drug Delivery System

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INTRODUCTION This term has become associated with those systems from which therapeutic agents may be automatically delivered at predefined rates over a long period of time. Product of this type has been formulated for oral injectables and topical use and includes inserts for placement in body cavities as well. 2

Classification of CDDS : 

Classification of CDDS The controlled release of drug molecules from a membrane permeation-controlled reservoir-type drug delivery device of various shapes in which drug is contained in a reservoir compartment enclosed by a polymer membrane. Controlled release dosage form cover a wide range of prolonged action formulations which provide continuous release of their active ingredient at a predetermined rate and for predetermined time. 3

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I] Rate programmed drug delivery systems (RPDDS) A) Polymer Membrane Permeation-Controlled Drug Delivery System B) Polymer Matrix Diffusion-Controlled Drug Delivery System C) Microreservior Partition-Controlled Drug Delivery System II] Activation-Modulated drug delivery systems (AMDDS) A) Physical means: a) Osmotic Pressure - Activated Drug Delivery System b) Hydrodynamic Pressure - Activated Drug Delivery System c) Vapour Pressure - Activated Drug Delivery System d) Mechanically - Activated Drug Delivery System e) Magnetically - Activated Drug Delivery System f) Sonophoresis - Activated Drug Delivery System g) Iontophorosis - Activated Drug Delivery System h) Hydration - Activated Drug Delivery System 4

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B) Chemically means: a) pH - Activated Drug Delivery System b) Ion - Activated Drug Delivery System c) Hydrolysis - Activated Drug Delivery System C) Biochemical means: a) Enzyme - Activated Drug Delivery System b) Biochemical - Activated Drug Delivery System c) Feedback-regulated drug delivery systems (FRDDS) III] Feedback-regulated drug delivery systems (FRDDS): A) Bioerosion – Regulated Drug Delivery System B) Bioresponsive Drug Delivery System C) Self - Regulating Drug Delivery System 5

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Osmotic Drug Delivery : In these systems, the drug is embedded in a polymer matrix and the release takes place by partitioning of drug into the polymer matrix and the surrounding medium. In contrast, reservoir systems have a drug core surrounded by a rate controlling membrane. Osmosis Osmotic pressure Semipermeable membrane 6

Osmotically controlled drug delivery systems : 

Osmotically controlled drug delivery systems Osmotic pressure is used as driving force for these systems to release the drug in controlled manner. Advantages of osmotic drug delivery systems 7

Classification of Osmotic drug delivery systems : 

Classification of Osmotic drug delivery systems A) Oral osmotic drug delivery systems B) Implantable osmotic drug delivery systems a) For human use b) For animal models 8

Basic components of Osmotic systems : 

Basic components of Osmotic systems Drug Osmotic agent : Hydrogel Osmotic matrix Plasticizers 9

Osmotic pumps : 

Osmotic pumps Historical aspects of osmotic pumps: Rose and Nelson, the Australian scientists, were initiators of osmotic pumps. Asymmetric membrane osmotic pump: Asymmetric membrane function by controlling the rate of transport of various chemical species, allowing some to cross the membrane film more rapidly than others. 10

Classifications of osmotic pumps according to there routes of administration : 

Classifications of osmotic pumps according to there routes of administration A] Oral osmotic tablets : a) Single chamber osmotic pumps i) Elementary osmotic pump ii) Controlled porocity osmotic pump iii) Osmotic bursting osmotic pump b) Multi-chamber osmotic pumps i) Push-pull osmotic pump ii) Sandwiched Osmotic tablets 11

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c) Other osmotic pumps i) Modified osmotic pump for insoluble drugs ii) Monolithic osmotic systems B] Oral osmotic capsules : a) Osmotically Controlled Release Oral Delivery System- Colon Targated b) Liquid-Osmotically Controlled Release Oral Delivery System c) Pelleted delayed release OR Multiparticulate delayed-release system d) Asymmetric membrane capsule e) Telescopic capsule for delayed release 12

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C] Implantable osmotic systems : a) Duros osmotic pump b) Alzet osmotic pumps D] Other osmotic pumps : a) Higuchi-Leeper osmotic pump b) Higuchi-Theeuwas osmotic pump Advantages of osmotic pumps 13

General mechanism for drug release from osmotic pumps : 

General mechanism for drug release from osmotic pumps dV / dt  = (A/ h)Lp ( σ ΔΠ  -Δp) Where, A= membrane area h= thickness of membrane Lp = mechanical permeability σ =reflection coefficient ΔΠ=osmotic pressure difference Δp = hydrostatic pressure difference 14

Factors affecting drug release rate : 

Factors affecting drug release rate Solubility Size of delivery orifice 15

Evaluation of oral osmotic DDS : 

Evaluation of oral osmotic DDS In vitro investigations In vivo investigations 16

Conclusion : 

Conclusion Drug delivery using the various OROS products can result in an improved safety profile, stable drug concentrations, uniform drug effects, and reduced dosing frequency. OROS technology has also enabled the use of an effective starting dose, without the need for dose titration, which allows the achievement of symptom control much earlier than that observed with immediate-release preparations. Such attributes can enhance patient compliance and convenience, thereby ensuring efficacy and improving patient outcomes. 17

References : 

References Y. W. Chien, (2005), Novel Drug Delivery System, 2nd edition, Marcel Dekker,Inc., 1-3, 17-18, 33-36. N. K. Jain and S. K. Jain, (1997), Controlled and novel Drug Delivery, 1st edition, C.B.S. publishers and distributors, 1-2. M. C. Gohel, R. K. Parikh, N.Y. Shah, (2009), Osmotic Drug Delivery: An Update. R. K. Verma, D. M. Krishna and S. Garg, (2002), Review article on Formulation aspects in the development of osmotically controlled oral drug delivery systems, J. Control. Release, 79, 7-27. N. S. Parmar S. K. Vyas, N. Vaya, (2003), Advances in Controlled and Novel Drug Delivery, CBS publishers, 18-32 18

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S. P. Vyas, R. K. Khar, Controlled Drug Delivery Concepts and Advances, (2001), Vallabh Prakashan, 170. A.G. Thombre, A.R. DeNoto and D.G. Gibbes, (1999), Delivery of glipizide from asymmetric membrane capsules using encapsulated excipients, J. Control. Release, 60, 333-341. Partha Gan Chaudhuri, Satya Prakash Singh, A Review Of Hydrogel-A Novel Drug Delivery System. X. Li and B.R. Osmotic Controlled Drug Delivery Systems, In: Design of controlled release of drug delivery systems, McGraw Hill, 203-229. 19