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General INTRODUCTION In the past 10 or 20 years a few companies have radically transformed their business performance. Many of concept and method they have used are now collectively called TOTAL QUALITY or TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT . Many companies have found that all of their radical restructuring,reengineering,downsizing and numerous quality program may have helped them survive,but they still don’t have distinctive quality advantages.

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Reimenn (1992) then director for quality programs,National Institute of Standards and Technology. U.S. Department of commerce, in Testimony to the U.S. congress, stated this clearly. There is now far clearer perception that quality is central to company competitiveness and to national competitiveness . During (1991) the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) completed a study of Macolm Baldrige National Quality Award winners and site visited companies. In the United State, the President and the Secretary of commerce have given their personal support and attention to quality, thus elevating quality on personal agenda. In the other countries like Argentiana ,Brazil, France, Greece, Malasia, Mexico,and Singapore there has also been leadership from the Government and business, creating National Programs of awareness , training and awards.


introduction Quality is outcome of quality culture in a business organization. It can’t be achieved only by technical application through process evaluation. The concept of TQM has been developed from inspection, quality control and quality assurance. INSPECTION – earlier to ascertain whether a product confirms to the specification the method used was inspection and measurement which was post production activity. QUALITY CONTROL – this was also a post production activity to detect defect in the finished products using technique to achieve maintain and improve quality standards of the product and services. QUALITY ASSURANCE – this is third evolutionary phase which contain all planned and systemic action necessary for compliance of given requirement for quantity of product or service meeting quality needs of the customer.


definition “ Total quality Management (TQM) is a style of working of management to achieve customer Satisfaction by boosting quality through continuous improvement and by motivating employees towards quality.” TQM means systemic approach which integrate quality related activities throughout the organization including -market research, research and development , operational planning for production of goods and services, procurement , production and services. Total quality management is an integrated management concept for continuous improvement of quality of goods and services through the participation of people at all level and function of the organization.


GOAL OF TQM To achieve complete lack of defects i.e. zero defects. It is applicable to both products and services. Small scale improvement at all level of cumulative effect.


WHAT IS TQM TQM is blend of technologies focused on four concepts Defect prevention Continuous improvement Focus on customer Philosophy that quality is not just the responsibility of an organization’s quality assurance department. It is a buzzword, just the latest in a string of quality slogans, or it is a new way of doing business in America. It is not a new concept, but it is a new management philosophy permeating our approach to doing business.

History of TQM:

History of TQM Total quality management was developed in the 1940s by Dr. W. Edward Deming who at the time was an advisor in sampling at the Bureau of census and later became a professor of statistics at the New York University graduate school of business administration. He had little success convincing American business to adopt TQM but his management methods did gain success in Japan. In the 1970 and 1980s many American companies including Ford, IBM and Xerox , began adopting Dr. Deming’s principle of TQM. This gradually lead to their regaining some of the markets previously lost to the Japanese. Although TQM gained it’s prominence in the private sector, in recent years it has been adopted by some public organization.

Principle of tqm:

Principle of tqm 1 . Sustained Management Commitment to Quality : An organization’s personality and culture will ultimately reflect its senior management ‘s values. If an organization is serious about implementing TQM, the commitment to do so has to start at the top, and the organization’s senior management has to be unwavering in its commitment to quality. Almost any organization senior managers will claims they are committed to quality. 2. Supplier Teaming : Another principle of TQM is to develop long term relationship with a few high quality supplier rather than simply selecting those suppliers with the lowest initial cost. American industry and Government procurement agencies have had and are continuing to have , difficulty in implementing this concept, although progress is being realized.

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Teamwork : Team working boosts employee moral. It reduce conflict and infighting. It solve problem by hitting them with a wide range of skills. Team working helps staff gain more skills and become more flexible in their work Thinking Statistically : Telling the staff what is going on involve improved communication typically this include team one of the main element of TQM. Most of the companies do not know exactly what their staff really think. The staff attitude survey is an essential peace of research .

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5. Employee Involvement: - Direct involvement of top management speeds up decision making, top management needs to be aware of TQM. Employee Empowerment - Empowering of staff means getting employees to think for themselves and to make decisions for themselves. The risk of staff errors are out weighed by the increase in creativity, productivity and customer services that result from empowerment. Quality Measurement - Measurement allow the company to make decision based on facts, not opinion. They keep to maintain standards and keep processes within the agreed tolerance, some of the measure in TQM include Productivity, financial performance, Production quality, customer satisfaction, Staff attitude , health, safety and environment.

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TRAINING - Educate and train the workforce for imparting knowledge improving skills and in the principle of the TQM which change the attitude of the workforce. VALUE IMPROVEMENT - The linkage between continuous improvement and value improvement is simultaneously obvious and subtle. This linkage becomes apparent when one consider the definition of quality. 10. BENCH MARKING - It consist of identifying other organizations that perform well and incorporating their wisdom into your organization.


FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS CUSTOMER FOCUS : The customer focus is a fundamental concept of quality management. After all organization only exist to provide goods and services to customers. During the evolutionary progress of almost every industry, the first phase is focus on quality of new product in the most basic term. The customer provide little input at this stage. Most are not even sure that they want these goods and services. CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT: Juran (1964) documented the structured approach that many companies used to achieve breakthrough improvement. In recent years, rapid change has become a way of life. Many companies employ this and similar approaches to create improvements by the hundreds and thousands. VALUE OF EVERY INDIVIDUAL: The value of each individual in an organization is another idea that sounds simple on the surface. Ideas contributed are just one measure of individual contribution. Other contributions include quality planning teams, participation on quality improvement , self control of own work process etc.


STRONG FORCES OF TQM 1. ALIGNMENT: A recent study by the Association of Management Consulting firms in the United State found that executive, consultant, and business school professors all agree that business strategy is now the single most important management issue and will remain so far at least the next 5 years. In the past few years, there has been new understanding of importance of strategy. 2. LINKAGE: In the past few years companies throughout the world have embrassed the concept of re-engineering with a fervor that defies description. Pioneered in the early 1980s by the companies such as IBM, Ford, AT&T, NCR and popularized in Michael Hammers best selling book,( Reengineering the Corporation) reengineering has become a common tool for corporations throughout the world. 3. REPLICTION: Probably the most powerful and the least understood way to dramatically accelerate result of quality and productivity improvement effort is the third strong force.

Critical processes for quality management:

Critical processes for quality management 1. QUALITY PLANNING: The logical place to start is quality planning. It consist of universal sequence of events –a quality planning roadmap. We first identify the customer and their needs then design the products (goods & services) which respond to those needs. Finally, we turn the plan over to the operating processes. They then have responding the operations. They run the processes, produce the goods and services, and satisfy the customer. 2 . QUALITY CONTROL : What the operating forces can do is minimize this waste.They do this through quality control.Quality control relies on five basics. A target A clear goal A sensor A way to measure actual performance A way to interpret the measurement and compare with the target and way to take action.

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3. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT: Juran(1964) describes the quality improvement process used by individual and organisation to make “breakthrough” changes in the level of performance.The quality improvement process is directed at long standing performance levels.The quality improvement process questions whether this is the best that can be attained.

Advantages :

Advantages It make company a leader not a follower. It faster teamwork. It make the company more sensitive to the customer needs. It increases customer confidence. It makes improvement of organizational reputation.


disadvantages TQM calls for the elimination of the goals and objectives required by managenent -by-objectives. Critics of TQM claim that this may negatively affect motivation. TQM detractors also argue that although total quality management calls for organizational change, it does not demand radical organizational reform.

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