Rocks & Minerals

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Chapter 13: Rocks & Minerals : 

Chapter 13: Rocks & Minerals

Basic Terms : 

Basic Terms Lets refresh our memory with some basic chemistry terms before we proceed!!

Atomic Number : 

Atomic Number Number of protons found in the nucleus Also the number of electrons

Mass Number : 

Mass Number Number of protons and neutrons

Atomic Weight : 

Atomic Weight Average atomic mass of an element

Matter : 

Matter Anything that takes up space, has mass, and can be weighed. 3 states: Solid Liquid Gas

Slide 8: 

Solid: Has a definite shape and volume Liquid: Definite volume; takes the shape of the container Gas: No definite shape or volume; takes shape and volume of its container

Element : 

Element Pure substance that can’t be broken down into other elements (hydrogen and oxygen) 108 elements on periodic table First 92 are “natural elements”

Atom : 

Atom Smallest piece of an element that is still recognized as an element Contains: Protons= + charge Neutrons=no charge Electrons= - charge

Chemical Symbol : 

Chemical Symbol One or two letter abbreviations for an element. Hydrogen: H Carbon: C Oxygen: O C6H12O6

Compound : 

Compound Substance that contains two or more elements bonded together Ex: Water (H and O) Table Salt (Na and Cl)

Molecule : 

Molecule Smallest unit of an element or compound that can exist by itself Molecules of Elements Hydrogen= H2 Oxygen= O2 Molecules of Compounds Water= H2O

Formula : 

Formula Tells the # of atoms of each element that combine to make a molecule Water= H2O Two atoms of hydrogen are shown by the subscript 2 One atom of oxygen, so no subscript is present

Mixture : 

Mixture A mixture of two or more kinds of matter that are not chemically bonded to each other

13-2: What is a Mineral? : 

13-2: What is a Mineral? A naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a definite chemical composition and crystal structure Crystal- flat sides that meet in sharp edges and corners

Formation & Composition : 

Formation & Composition Minerals come from cooled magma 2500 kinds of minerals; some are easy to find and others are rare

Identifying Minerals : 

Identifying Minerals Physical Properties are used to identify minerals: Color- always a reliable way to identify minerals. However, color can change do to pollution, heat, and cold

Luster : 

Luster The way a mineral reflects light from its surface Non-metallic luster: Don’t have much of a reflection; known as glassy, pearly, and dull

Hardness : 

Hardness The ability to resist being scratched Most useful properties for identifying a mineral Numbered 1-10. 1-Talc-softest 10-Diamond-hardest

Streak : 

Streak Color of powder scraped off when it is rubbed against a hard, rough surface Streak may be a different color than the mineral itself.

Density : 

Density Amount of matter in a given space Mass per volume Density of a mineral is always the same Denser material feels heavier

Crystal Shape : 

Crystal Shape Minerals have a crystal shape that results from the way the atoms or molecules come together as the mineral is forming

Cleavage & Fracture : 

Cleavage & Fracture Describe how the mineral breaks along flat surfaces. Ex: Halite Most minerals break along a rough or jagged surface. Ex: Quartz

Special Properties : 

Special Properties Magnetite: Naturally magnetic Halite: Tastes salty Sulfur: Smells like rotten eggs

13.3: Uses of Minerals : 

13.3: Uses of Minerals Minerals are raw materials used for a wide variety of products from dyes to dishes and from table salt to televisions

Ores : 

Ores Minerals or a combination of minerals from which metals and nonmetals can be removed in usable amounts

Metals : 

Metals Elements that have shiny surfaces and are able to conduct electricity and heat Ex: Iron, lead, aluminum, copper, silver, and gold

Slide 32: 

Copper: Pipes and electrical wire Aluminum: Cans, foil, motors, and airplanes Silver & Gold: Jewelry Copper & Zinc: Brass

Nonmetals : 

Nonmetals Elements that have dull surfaces and are poor conductors of electricity and heat Some are removed from the Earth and others must be processed

Slide 34: 

Sulfur: Most useful nonmetal. Matches Medicines Fertilizers Iron Steel Production

Gemstones : 

Gemstones Hard, beautiful, and durable substances that can be cut and polished for jewelry and decoration Gem: Cut and polished gemstone

Slide 36: 

Most valuable: Diamonds, rubies, and emeralds Semiprecious: Amethysts, garnets, and turquoises

13.4: What is a Rock? : 

13.4: What is a Rock? Building blocks of the Earth They form beaches, mountains, the ocean floor, and Earth’s crust

Igneous Rocks : 

Igneous Rocks Originally hot, fluid magma within the Earth Latin word Ignis: Means fire

Sedimentary Rocks : 

Sedimentary Rocks Formed from particles that have been carried along and deposited by wind and water

Sediments : 

Sediments Bits of rock in the form of mud, sand, or pebbles Include: Shells, bones, leaves, stems, and other remains of living things Over time the particles become pressed or cemented together to form rocks

Metamorphic : 

Metamorphic Rocks formed when chemical reactions, tremendous heat, or great pressure change existing rocks into new kinds of rocks

Slide 43: 

The Rock Cycle

The Rock Cycle : 

The Rock Cycle Continuous changing of rocks from one kind to another over long periods of time

13.5: Fluid & Fire: Igneous Rocks : 

13.5: Fluid & Fire: Igneous Rocks Classified according to their composition and texture Composition: Minerals of which rocks are formed Texture: Shape, size, arrangement, and distribution of the minerals

Extrusive Rocks : 

Extrusive Rocks Rocks formed from lava, also known as volcanic rocks Ex: Basalt, Obsidian, and Pumice

Intrusive Rocks : 

Intrusive Rocks Formed deep within the Earth Formed when magma forces its way upward into preexisting rocks and then hardens Ex: Granite

13.6: Slowly Built Layers:Sedimentary Rocks : 

13.6: Slowly Built Layers:Sedimentary Rocks 3 Categories: Clastic rocks Organic rocks Chemical rocks According to the origin of materials from which they are made

Clastic Rocks : 

Clastic Rocks Made of fragments of previously existing rocks Classified according to their size and shape Conglomerate: Over a third of a rock is covered in pebbles

Organic Rocks : 

Organic Rocks Come from organisms; formed directly or indirectly from material that was once living When they die, their shells collect on the ocean floor and are compacted into rock

Chemical Rocks : 

Chemical Rocks When a sea or lake dries up, large amounts of minerals are dissolved in the water The deposited materials create spectacular formations

13.7: Changes in Form:Metamorphic Rocks : 

13.7: Changes in Form:Metamorphic Rocks Already existing rocks are buried deep within the Earth Heat, pressure, and chemical reactions cause their texture and structure to change

Slide 54: 

Formed from igneous and sedimentary rocks Under heat and pressure the minerals in the rocks separate into layers Rocks texture, mineral composition, and chemical composition change

Slide 55: 

Foliated- Mineral crystals arranged in parallel layers, which are thin and flat, like leaves Unfoliated- Rocks are banded together and do not break into layers

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