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Atomic Number : Atomic Number Number of protons found in the nucleus Also the number of electrons Mass Number : Mass Number Number of protons and neutrons Atomic Weight : Atomic Weight Average atomic mass of an element Matter : Matter Anything that takes up space, has mass, and can be weighed. 3 states: Solid Liquid Gas Slide 8: Solid: Has a definite shape and volume Liquid: Definite volume; takes the shape of the container Gas: No definite shape or volume; takes shape and volume of its container Element : Element Pure substance that can’t be broken down into other elements (hydrogen and oxygen) 108 elements on periodic table First 92 are “natural elements” Atom : Atom Smallest piece of an element that is still recognized as an element Contains: Protons= + charge Neutrons=no charge Electrons= - charge Chemical Symbol : Chemical Symbol One or two letter abbreviations for an element. Hydrogen: H Carbon: C Oxygen: O C6H12O6 Compound : Compound Substance that contains two or more elements bonded together Ex: Water (H and O) Table Salt (Na and Cl) Molecule : Molecule Smallest unit of an element or compound that can exist by itself Molecules of Elements Hydrogen= H2 Oxygen= O2 Molecules of Compounds Water= H2O Formula : Formula Tells the # of atoms of each element that combine to make a molecule Water= H2O Two atoms of hydrogen are shown by the subscript 2 One atom of oxygen, so no subscript is present Mixture : Mixture A mixture of two or more kinds of matter that are not chemically bonded to each other 13-2: What is a Mineral? : 13-2: What is a Mineral? A naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a definite chemical composition and crystal structure Crystal- flat sides that meet in sharp edges and corners Formation & Composition : Formation & Composition Minerals come from cooled magma 2500 kinds of minerals; some are easy to find and others are rare Identifying Minerals : Identifying Minerals Physical Properties are used to identify minerals: Color- always a reliable way to identify minerals. However, color can change do to pollution, heat, and cold Luster : Luster The way a mineral reflects light from its surface Non-metallic luster: Don’t have much of a reflection; known as glassy, pearly, and dull Hardness : Hardness The ability to resist being scratched Most useful properties for identifying a mineral Numbered 1-10. 1-Talc-softest 10-Diamond-hardest Streak : Streak Color of powder scraped off when it is rubbed against a hard, rough surface Streak may be a different color than the mineral itself. Density : Density Amount of matter in a given space Mass per volume Density of a mineral is always the same Denser material feels heavier Crystal Shape : Crystal Shape Minerals have a crystal shape that results from the way the atoms or molecules come together as the mineral is forming Cleavage & Fracture : Cleavage & Fracture Describe how the mineral breaks along flat surfaces. Ex: Halite Most minerals break along a rough or jagged surface. Ex: Quartz Special Properties : Special Properties Magnetite: Naturally magnetic Halite: Tastes salty Sulfur: Smells like rotten eggs 13.3: Uses of Minerals : 13.3: Uses of Minerals Minerals are raw materials used for a wide variety of products from dyes to dishes and from table salt to televisions Ores : Ores Minerals or a combination of minerals from which metals and nonmetals can be removed in usable amounts Metals : Metals Elements that have shiny surfaces and are able to conduct electricity and heat Ex: Iron, lead, aluminum, copper, silver, and gold Slide 32: Copper: Pipes and electrical wire Aluminum: Cans, foil, motors, and airplanes Silver & Gold: Jewelry Copper & Zinc: Brass Nonmetals : Nonmetals Elements that have dull surfaces and are poor conductors of electricity and heat Some are removed from the Earth and others must be processed Slide 34: Sulfur: Most useful nonmetal. Matches Medicines Fertilizers Iron Steel Production Gemstones : Gemstones Hard, beautiful, and durable substances that can be cut and polished for jewelry and decoration Gem: Cut and polished gemstone Slide 36: Most valuable: Diamonds, rubies, and emeralds Semiprecious: Amethysts, garnets, and turquoises 13.4: What is a Rock? : 13.4: What is a Rock? Building blocks of the Earth They form beaches, mountains, the ocean floor, and Earth’s crust Igneous Rocks : Igneous Rocks Originally hot, fluid magma within the Earth Latin word Ignis: Means fire Sedimentary Rocks : Sedimentary Rocks Formed from particles that have been carried along and deposited by wind and water Sediments : Sediments Bits of rock in the form of mud, sand, or pebbles Include: Shells, bones, leaves, stems, and other remains of living things Over time the particles become pressed or cemented together to form rocks Metamorphic : Metamorphic Rocks formed when chemical reactions, tremendous heat, or great pressure change existing rocks into new kinds of rocks Slide 43: The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle : The Rock Cycle Continuous changing of rocks from one kind to another over long periods of time 13.5: Fluid & Fire: Igneous Rocks : 13.5: Fluid & Fire: Igneous Rocks Classified according to their composition and texture Composition: Minerals of which rocks are formed Texture: Shape, size, arrangement, and distribution of the minerals Extrusive Rocks : Extrusive Rocks Rocks formed from lava, also known as volcanic rocks Ex: Basalt, Obsidian, and Pumice Intrusive Rocks : Intrusive Rocks Formed deep within the Earth Formed when magma forces its way upward into preexisting rocks and then hardens Ex: Granite 13.6: Slowly Built Layers:Sedimentary Rocks : 13.6: Slowly Built Layers:Sedimentary Rocks 3 Categories: Clastic rocks Organic rocks Chemical rocks According to the origin of materials from which they are made Clastic Rocks : Clastic Rocks Made of fragments of previously existing rocks Classified according to their size and shape Conglomerate: Over a third of a rock is covered in pebbles Organic Rocks : Organic Rocks Come from organisms; formed directly or indirectly from material that was once living When they die, their shells collect on the ocean floor and are compacted into rock Chemical Rocks : Chemical Rocks When a sea or lake dries up, large amounts of minerals are dissolved in the water The deposited materials create spectacular formations 13.7: Changes in Form:Metamorphic Rocks : 13.7: Changes in Form:Metamorphic Rocks Already existing rocks are buried deep within the Earth Heat, pressure, and chemical reactions cause their texture and structure to change Slide 54: Formed from igneous and sedimentary rocks Under heat and pressure the minerals in the rocks separate into layers Rocks texture, mineral composition, and chemical composition change Slide 55: Foliated- Mineral crystals arranged in parallel layers, which are thin and flat, like leaves Unfoliated- Rocks are banded together and do not break into layers You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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